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  • Jeffrey 12:06 am on December 14, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Daena, Daena in the Gathas   

    Avesta: Daena in the Gathas 

    Daena is…

    A good creation of Ahura Mazda, a supreme blessing for all living beings. Something whose allies are friends of God. Something eternal dictating that the supporters of evil beings are evil and the lovers of good beings are good. Something divided into good and evil. Something to be done, helped, obtained, improved, perfected, followed, taught and propagated. Daena is taught and propagated by Saoshyants and good people. Daena can be obtained through Asha (Righteous Truth) and Armaiti. Daena delivers the wicked to darkness and the righteous to light. Daena shames the wicked but pleases and helps the righteous. An individual’s Daena is manifested in their works, which can be good or evil. An evil person’s Daena leads them along their evil paths. Daena leads to Vohu Mana (Good Mind and Heart). Daena conquers.

    Disclaimer: I do not know Avestan! These interpretations are taken from translations.

    Here is every instance I found of the word Daena in the Gathas:

    31:11

    hyat nê mazdâ paourvîm gaêthåscâ tashô daênåscâ thwâ mananghâ xratûshcâ hyat astvañtem dadå ushtanem hyat shyaothanâcâ sêñghãscâ ýathrâ varenêñg vaså dâyetê.

    Daena as creation of Mazda, mentioned alongside other good creations.

    31:20

    ýê âyat ashavanem divamnem hôi aparem xshyô daregêm âyû temanghô dushhvarethêm avaêtâs vacô têm vâ ahûm dregvañtô shyaothanâish hvâish daênâ naêshat.

    Daena as something that delivers the wicked through their own acts to the land of darkness (Jahannam).

    33:13

    rafedhrâi vourucashânê dôishî-môi ýâ-vê abifrâ tâ xshathrahyâ ahurâ ýâ vanghêush ashish mananghô frô speñtâ ârmaitê ashâ daênå fradaxshayâ.

    Daena as something to be realized or obtained through or in the form of Spenta Armaiti and Asha.

    34:13

    têm advânem ahurâ ýêm môi mraosh vanghêush mananghô daênå saoshyañtãm ýâ hû-karetâ ashâcît urvâxshat hyat civishtâ hudâbyô mîzhdem mazdâ ýehyâ tû dathrem.

    Daena as the law or teaching of the Saoshyants.

    44:9

    tat thwâ peresâ eresh-môi vaocâ ahurâ, kathâ-môi ýãm ýaosh daênãm ýaosh dânê ýãm hudânâush paitishe sah’yât xshathrahyâ ereshvâ xshathrâ thwâvãs asîshtîsh mazdâ hademôi ashâ vohucâ shyãs mananghâ.

    Daena as something Zarathustra wants to devote wholly to Ahura Mazda.

    44:10

    tat thwâ peresâ eresh-môi vaocâ ahurâ tãm daênãm ýâ hâtãm vahishtâ ýâ-môi gaêthå ashâ frâdôit hacêmnâ ârmatôish uxdhâish shyaothanâ eresh daidyat mah’yå cistôish thwâ îshtîsh usên mazdâ.

    Daena as the best blessing for all living beings and a bringer of prosperity.

    44:11

    tat thwâ peresâ eresh-môi vaocâ ahurâ, kathâ têñg-â vîjêmyât ârmaitish ýaêibyô mazdâ thwôi vashyetê daênâ azêm tôi âish pouruyô fravôivîdê vîspêñg anyêñg manyêush spasyâ dvaêshanghâ.

    Daena as something that is proclaimed or propagated.

    45:2

    at fravaxshyâ anghêush mainyû pouruyê ýayå spanyå ûitî mravat ýêm añgrem, nôit nâ manå nôit sêñghâ nôit xratavô naêdâ varanâ nôit uxdhâ naêdâ shyaothanâ nôit daênå nôit urvãnô hacaiñtê.

    Daena as something that differs between the good and evil spirits.

    45:11

    ýastâ daêvêñg aparô mashyãscâ tarê-mãstâ ýôi îm tarê-manyañtâ anyêñg ahmât ýê hôi arêm manyâtâ saoshyañtô dêñg patôish speñtâ daênâ urvathô barâtâ patâ vâ mazdâ ahurâ!

    Daena as something helped or served by Saoshyants or other good people, who thereby earn the friendship of Ahura Mazda.

    46:6

    at ýastêm nôit nâ isemnô âyât drûjô hvô dâmãn haêthahyâ gât hvô zî dregvå ýê dregvâitê vahishtô hvô ashavâ ýahmâi ashavâ fryô hyat daênå paouruyå då ahurâ.

    Daena as the first/eternal something (law) laid down by Ahura, dictating that the partisans and supporters of evil beings are evil, and the lovers of good beings are good.

    46:7

    kêm-nâ mazdâ mavaitê pâyûm dadât hyat mâ dregvå dîdareshatâ aênanghê anyêm thwahmât âthrascâ mananghascâ ýayå shyaothanâish ashem thraoshtâ ahurâ tãm môi dãstvãm daênayâi frâvaocâ.

    Daena as something that will benefit from or learn along with Zarathustra the answer to Zarathustra’s question about who his protector will be other than Vohu Mana and Ahura’s fire.

    46:11

    xshathrâish ýûjên karapanô kâvayascâ akâish shyaothanâish ahûm mereñgeidyâi mashîm ýêñg hvê urvâ hvaêcâ xraodat daênâ hyat aibî-gemen ýathrâ cinvatô peretush ýavôi vîspâi drûjô demânâi astayô.

    Daena as something that the wicked are ashamed of and chides them as they go towards Hell.

    47:6

    at ýastêm nôit nâ isemnô âyât drûjô hvô dâmãn haêthahyâ gât hvô zî dregvå ýê dregvâitê vahishtô hvô ashavâ ýahmâi ashavâ fryô hyat daênå paouruyå då ahurâ.

    Daena as something that helps seekers of truth, and/or something to be rewarded to the righteous.

    48:4

    ýê dât manô vahyô mazdâ ashyascâ hvô daênãm shyaothanâcâ vacanghâcâ ahyâ zaoshêñg ushtish varenêñg hacaitê thwahmî xratå apêmem nanâ anghat.

    Daena as something manifested in decisions that can be good or bad.

    49:4

    ýôi dush-xrathwâ aêshemem vareden râmemcâ hvâish hizubîsh fshuyasû afshuyañtô ýaêshãm nôit hvarshtâish vãs duzhvarshtâ tôi daêvêñg dãn ýâ dregvatô daênâ.

    Daena of the wicked associated with evil, misguidance, and the work of the Daevas.

    49:5

    at hvô mazdâ îzhâcâ âzûitishcâ ýê daênãm vohû sârshtâ mananghâ ârmatôish kascît ashâ huzêñtush tâishcâ vîspâish thwahmî xshathrôi ahurâ.

    Daena of the righteous as something to be attached to Vohu Mana that delivers them to the Kingdom of Light.

    49:6

    frô vå fraêshyâ mazdâ ashemcâ mrûitê dà ýâ vê xratêush xshmâkahyâ â-mananghâ eresh vîcidyâi ýathâ-î srâvayaêmâ tãm daênãm ýâ xshmâvatô ahurâ.

    Daena associated with someone speaking and teaching.

    49:9

    sraotû sâsnå fshêñghyô suyê tashtô nôit eresh-vacå sarêm didãs dregvâtâ hyat daênå vahishtê ýûjên mîzhdê ashâ ýuxtâ ýâhî dêjâmâspâ.

    Daena associated with spiritual success.

    51:13

    tâ dregvatô maredaitî daênâ erezâush haithîm ýehyâ urvâ xraodaitî cinvatô peretå âkå h’âish shyaothanâish hizvascâ ashahyâ nãsvå pathô.

    Daena as something that leads the wicked astray or causes him to attack good things.

    51:17

    berexdhãm môi ferashaoshtrô hvô-gvô daêdôisht kehrpêm daênayâi vanghuyâi ýãm hôi ishyãm dâtû xshayãs mazdå ahurô ashahyâ âzhdyâi gerezdîm.

    Daena as something for the sake of which the speaker (Zarathustra?) wishes that Frashaoshtra Hvogva will be granted someone dear and beautiful.

    51:19

    hvô tat nâ maidyôi-månghâ spitamâ ahmâi dazdê daênayâ vaêdemnô ýê ahûm ishasãs aibî mazdå dâtâ mraot gayehyâ shyaothanâish vahyô.

    Daena as something related to wisdom or knowledge.

    51:21

    ârmatôish nâ speñtô hvô cistî uxdhâish shyaothanâ daênâ ashem spênvat vohû xshathrem mananghâ mazdå dadât ahurô têm vanguhîm ýâsâ ashîm.

    Daena as something that is advanced by holiness and/or advances a person in holiness.

    53:1

    vahishtâ îshtish srâvî zarathushtrahê dà spitâmahyâ ýezî hôi dât âyaptâ ashât hacâ ahurô mazdå ýavôi vîspâi â hvanghevîm ýaêcâ hôi daben sasheñcâ daênayå vanghuyå uxdhâ shyaothanâcâ (2). (zôt,)

    Daena as something good to be done, perfected, or taught.

    53:2

    atcâ hôi scañtû mananghâ uxdhâish shyaothanâishcâ xshnûm mazdå vahmâi â fraoret ýasnãscâ kavacâ vîshtâspô zarathushtrish spitâmô ferashaoshtrascâ dånghô erezûsh pathô ýãm daênãm ahurô saoshyañtô dadât.

    Daena as something to be followed and done, something given to Saoshyants.

    53:4

    têm zî vê speredânî varânî ýâ fedhrôi vîdât paithyaêcâ vâstryaêibyô atcâ hvaêtaovê ashâunî ashavabyô mananghô vanghêush hvênvat hanghush mêm bêedush mazdå dadât ahurô daênayâi vanghuyâi ýavôi vîspâi â.

    Daena as something good to be granted or benefited in association with Vohu Mana.

    53:5

    sâhvênî vazyamnâbyô kainibyô mraomî xshmaibyâcâ vademnô mêñcâ-î mãzdazdûm vaêdôdûm daênâbîsh abyascâ ahûm ýê vanghêush mananghô ashâ vê anyô ainîm vîvêñghatû tat zî hôi hushênem anghat.

    Daena as something through which one understands or attains Vohu Mana.

    Yasna Haptanghaiti:

    35:1

    ahurem mazdãm ashavanem ashahe ratûm ýazamaide, ameshâ speñtâ huxshathrâ hudhånghô ýazamaide, vîspãm ashaonô stîm ýazamaide mainyevîmcâ gaêthyãmcâ berejâ vanghêush ashahe berejâ daênayå vanghuyå mâzdayasnôish. (râspî,) (ahurem … mâzdayasnôish (2).)

    Daena as the Mazdayasni religion, something to be revered and ritually honored.

    37:5

    vohucâ manô ýazamaidê vohucâ xshathrem vanguhîmcâ daênãm vanguhîmcâ fseratûm vanguhîmcâ ârmaitîm. ýenghê hâtãm … tåscâ ýazamaide!!

    Ibid.

    39:2

    daitikanãmcâ aidyûnãm hyat urunô ýazamaidê, ashâunãm âat urunô ýazamaidê kudô-zâtanãmcît narãmcâ nâirinãmcâ ýaêshãm vahehîsh daênå vanaiñtî vâ vêñghen vâ vaonarê vâ.

    Daena as something belonging to the righteous that conquers.

    40:1

    âhû at paitî adâhû mazdâ ahurâ mazdãmcâ bûiricâ kereshvâ râitî tôi xrapaitî ahmat hyat aibî, hyat mîzhdem mavaêthem fradadâthâ daênâbyô mazdâ ahurâ

    Daena as something relating to gifts and blessings?

    41:5

    thwôi staotarascâ mãthranascâ ahuramazdâ aogemadaêcâ usmahicâ vîsâmadaêcâ, hyat mîzhdem mavaêthem fradadâthâ daênâbyô mazdâ ahurâ, (thwôi staotarascâ … mazdâ ahurâ (2),)

    Ibid.

     
  • Jeffrey 12:42 pm on December 11, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: appearances, Daena   

    The Appearance of the Daena as a Maiden 

    Physical descriptions of the Daena from various Avestan and Zoroastrian texts:

    A virgin maiden “of good shape, clad ik white garments, of fifteen years, who is fair on all the sides, by whom the soul is gladdened” (Bundahishn)

    “majestic and holy, full of youth, crowned with a diadem, benevolent and strong”(Vendidad)

    “beautiful, bright, with rosy [or white] arms, strong, majestic, with an upright and slender physique, an admirable body, noble, of illustrious race, fifteen years of age, with a body brighter than the brightest of creatures” (Hadokht Nask)

    “adorned with grandeur, excellence, beauty, emitting a fragrant scent, triumphant, dominating her enemies” (Hadokht Nask)

    She has been described in some Hadokht Nask translations as “high-breasted” or “thick-breasted”.

    “A young maiden, beautiful, strong, majestic, with a large [tall] belt, an upright and slender physique, a noble and bright face, wearing low shoes and a shining diadem of gold.”(Yasht 5, Hymn to the Waters)

    “The honorable waters… who sits upon her throne, speaking, teaching, in the form of a young maiden, beautiful, strong, majestic, with a large belt, holding high her brilliant face, adorned with a most beautiful mantle, covered with gold adornments, with baresma (a wand-like bundle of holy sticks) in hand, in accordance with the rule, and four-sided golden earrings, hanging and swaying. She wears an emerald on her beautiful necklace. Anahita* of the waters! Nobly adorned, she girds her waist tightly to give her breasts a graceful and charming form. On her head she wears a diadem with a golden luster and one hundred stars with eight rays; it is charming, adorned with fillets, bright, round, made with artistry. She wears a beaver-skin garment made from a beaver chosen from three hundred beavers, born among four (ie. in good conditions), the most beautiful and well-colored of all the beavers that live under the water, shining in lustrous gold and silver like beaver skin worked at the right time.” (Yasht 5, Hymn to the Waters)

    “a beautiful young maiden, very strong, majestic, with a large belt, holding high her brilliant face, noble.” (Yasht 13, Hymn to Good Reward)

    “Then his own Daena and deeds were a form of maiden beautiful to behold, well-grown [i.e. she grew up in virtue], with shapely breasts, lovable to the heart and to the soul; whose body is so brilliant that the sight is very pleasant and the contemplation of it is very desirable.” (Book of Arda Viraf)

    *The etymological meaning of Anahita seems to be ‘pure, immaculate’. Further reading.

     
  • Jeffrey 2:32 am on December 2, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Daena, , Vafra Navaza and the Waters as Daena, Yasht 5 Hymn to the Waters   

    Avesta: the Daena of the Waters 

    From Yasht 5 of the Khorda Avesta, the Hymn to the Waters

    “Honorable waters… To whom Pourus Vafra Navaza sacrificed when Thraetona the victorious and strong called out to him [or flung him up into the air] in the form of a kahkaça [possibly vulture] bird. Vifra Navaza traveled for three days and three nights toward his home; he did not arrive, he did not reach it. The third night passed and he reached the dawn, the first rays of the bright dawn. And at dawn, he invoked the waters: “Anahita* of the waters, hasten to my aid; bring me help right now. I will offer you one hundred Zaothras accompanied by Haoma and myazda, purified and consecrated. I will offer them to you on the banks of the Ranha, if I live to reach the land created by Ahura Mazda, if I arrive at my own home.

    The waters ran to him in the form of a young maiden, beautiful, strong, majestic, with a large belt, an upright and slender physique, and a noble and bright face, wearing low shoes and a shining diadem of gold. She took him by the hands. Right away, quickly, he moved toward the land created by Ahura Mazda and reached his home healthy and safe, as he had been before.”

    “The honorable waters… who sits upon her throne, speaking, teaching, in the form of a young maiden, beautiful, strong, majestic, with a large belt, holding high her brilliant face, adorned with a most beautiful mantle, covered with gold adornments, with baresma (a wand-like bundle of holy sticks) in hand, in accordance with the rule, and four-sided golden earrings, hanging and swaying. She wears an emerald on her beautiful necklace. Anahita* of the waters! Nobly adorned, she girds her waist tightly to give her breasts a graceful and charming form. On her head she wears a diadem with a golden luster and one hundred stars with eight rays; it is charming, adorned with fillets, bright, round, made with artistry. She wears a beaver-skin garment made from a beaver chosen from three hundred beavers, born among four (ie. in good conditions), the most beautiful and well-colored of all the beavers that live under the water, shining in lustrous gold and silver like beaver skin worked at the right time.”

    Bonus: Ashivanuhi (“Good Reward”) as Daena in Yasht 13: “…in whose [Karasna’s] dwelling the beautiful and bright Ashivanuhi comes in the form of a beautiful young maiden, very strong, majestic, with a large belt, holding high her brilliant face, noble.”

    *The etymological meaning of Anahita seems to be ‘pure, immaculate’. Further reading.

     
  • Jeffrey 10:35 pm on September 16, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Daena, , Hadokht Nask,   

    Avesta: Hadokht Nask on What Happens After You Die 

    This is a translation of Charles de Harlez’s 1877 French translation. If you want to see how wildly divergent translations of this text can be, take a look at Darmesteter’s translation.

    HADOKHT NASK FRAGMENT ON WHAT HAPPENS AFTER YOU DIE

    1-2. Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda: Ahura Mazda, very holy spirit, creator of visible good things, pure being! When a righteous one dies, where does his soul stay that night?

    4. So Ahura Mazda told him: it stays near the head, reciting the Ustavaiti Gatha, repeating wishes for joy: Happiness[1] to him, happiness to all whom Ahura Mazda wishes to give it to, He who rules as He pleases. During this night, it tastes as much joy as all the joy in the whole world.

    3-4. During the second night, where does the soul stay? Ahura Mazda responded: it stays near the head, reciting the Ustavaiti Gatha, repeating wishes for joy: Happiness to him, happiness to all whom Ahura Mazda wishes to give it to, He who rules as He pleases. During this night, it tastes as much joy as all the joy in the whole world.

    5-6. During the third night, where does the soul stay? Ahura Mazda responded: it stays near the head, reciting the Ustavaiti Gatha, repeating wishes for joy: Happiness to him, happiness to all whom Ahura Mazda wishes to give it to, He who rules as He pleases. During this night, it tastes as much joy as all the joy in the whole world.

    7-9. Upon the passing of the third night to the beginning of the glow of dawn, the soul of the righteous man finds itself in the midst of plants. A fragrance comes to it (contained in the plants). A wind bringing it to him comes from the middle of the southern regions, a fragrant wind, more fragrant than all other winds. The soul of the righteous man inhales this wind into his nose. From whence blows this wind more fragrant than any I have ever inhaled into my nostrils? From this fragrance, his own nature comes to him in the form of a young maiden, beautiful, bright, with rosy arms, strong, majestic, with an upright and slender physique, with an admirable body, noble, of illustrious race, fifteen years of age, with a body brighter than the brightest of creatures.

    10. And the soul of the righteous one asks her: What maiden are you, most beautiful of all maidens I have ever seen?

    11. And his own nature responds: I am your good thoughts, your good words and your good actions, the very nature [Daêna] of your own body. Who has adorned you with[2] this grandeur, this excellence, this beauty, emitting a fragrant scent, triumphant, dominating your enemies, such as you appear before me?

    12. It is you, oh young man, your good thoughts, your good words, your good actions, your very nature [Daêna], that has adorned me with this grandeur, this excellence, this beauty, emitting a fragrant scent, triumphant, dominating my enemies, such as I appear before you.[3]

    13. When you saw up there [in the world] someone practicing magic, engaging in seduction or oppression, you bowed and recited the Gathas loudly, honoring[4] the pure waters and the fire, son of Ahura Mazda and seeking to please the faithful man, whether he came from near or far. Thus you rendered me, I who was already lovely, even lovelier; though seated on a high seat, you have made me sit on an even higher seat, through these good thoughts, through these holy words, through these good works.

    14. Thus men after this will honor[5] me, I Ahura Mazda, long-honored, consulted (by those who seek the truth).

    15-16. The soul of the righteous takes a first step and stops in Humata [good thoughts]; it takes a second step and stops in Hukta [good words]; it takes a third step and stops in Huarsta [good deeds]; it takes a fourth step and stops at the place of beginningless lights. A righteous one who died before him questions him, asking: How, oh dead righteous one, did you come from the home of the herds, from the land of abundant unions, from the corporeal world, to the spiritual world; from the perishable world to the eternal world? How has happiness come to you for eternity [footnote: How has good being been yours enduringly?]?

    17-18. And Ahura Mazda speaks: Ask nothing of this man whom you question, this man who has come from a formidable, horrible road, who distances (himself from the world), upon the separation of the body and the intelligence. What suits him best after death is having food brought to him, golden oil, for the young man whose thoughts, words, inclinations, and actions were holy. It is the food (that is suitable) after death for the maiden who has persevered in holy thoughts, words and actions, always well guided, surrendered to her master, continually pure.

    19-24. Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda: Ahura Mazda, very holy spirit… pure being. When a wicked one dies, where does his soul stay that night? Ahura Mazda replied: It goes around the head, o holy Zarathustra, saying loudly this verse of the Gathas:  To what land shall I take myself, where shall I flee? [Yasna 46:1] On the same night, this soul suffers as much suffering as all the suffering in the world.

    During the second night, where does the soul stay? Ahura Mazda replied: It goes around the head, o holy Zarathustra, saying loudly this verse of the Gathas:  To what land shall I take myself, where shall I flee? [Yasna 46:1] On the same night, this soul suffers as much suffering as all the suffering in the world.

    During the third night, where does the soul stay? Ahura Mazda replied: It goes around the head, o holy Zarathustra, saying loudly this verse of the Gathas:  To what land shall I take myself, where shall I flee? [Yasna 46:1] On the same night, this soul suffers as much suffering as all the suffering in the world.

    25-26. Upon the passing of the third night to the beginning of the glow of dawn, the soul of the evil man finds itself in (a place of) horror, and a disgusting odor comes to him. The wind that brings it blows from the north, from the northern countries, spreading a fetid stench, more fetid than any other wind. And the soul of the wicked man inhales this wind into his nose: From whence blows this fetidly reeking wind, more fetid than any I have ever smelled?

    ——-

    A large part of the Avestan text has been lost here, but here is a plausible-sounding reconstruction of the gist of this section, drawing on the Bundahishn and obvious patterns in the chapter:

    From this fetid wind, his own nature comes to him in the form of a maiden, hideous, ugly, maladroit, reeking.

    And the soul of the wicked one, speaking to her, asks: what maiden are you, most hideous of all maidens I have ever seen?

    And his own nature responds; I am your evil thoughts, your evil words and your evil actions, the very nature [Daêna] of your own body. Who has given you this sickliness, this ugliness, this stench, this feebleness, such as you appear before me?

    It is you, o evil man, your evil thoughts, your evil words, your evil actions, your very nature [Daêna], that has given me this sickliness, this ugliness, this stench, this feebleness, such as I appear before you.

    You did evil on the earth. Thus you rendered me very hideous; seated on a high seat, you have made me sit on a very low seat, through these evil thoughts, through these evil words, through these evil works.

    The soul of the wicked one takes a first step and stops in Evil Thoughts; it takes a second step and stops in Evil Words; it takes a third step and stops in Evil Deeds.

    ——-

    To return to the extant Avesta:

    33-34. The soul of the wicked takes a fourth step and stops in beginningless darkness. An evil one who died before him questions him, asking: How did you die, o wicked one, how did you come from the home of the herds, from the land of abundant desires, from the corporeal world, to the spiritual world; from the perishable world to the world that never ends? How has this misfortune come to you for eternity?

    35-36. Angra Mainyu cries: Ask nothing of this man whom you question, this man who has come from a formidable, horrible road, who distances (himself from the world), upon the separation of the body and the intelligence. What suits him after death is having food brought to him, that which is poison or mixed with poison, for the young man whose thoughts, words, inclinations, and actions were wicked. It is the food (that is suitable) after death for the maiden who lived wickedly, whose thoughts, words and actions, were continually evil, who followed a bad direction, independent of any master.

    [1] The word here translated as ‘happiness’ and ‘joy’ is ushta, designating supreme spiritual happiness. De Harlez translates it as salut, meaning salvation.

    [2] Other translations include ‘endowed you with’, ‘willed for you’, and ‘loved for you’.

    [3] Due to major omissions on the part of de Harlez, I consulted the Avestan and Darmesteter’s translation to translate this verse.

    [4] Other translations could be ‘worship’, ‘praise’, ‘celebrate’, ‘revere’; the word is ýazemnô.

    [5] Ibid.

    (This translation is Copyright 2017 Zebulon Ulysses Goertzel and free to share with the Creative Commons 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Please credit both me and de Harlez.)

     
  • Jeffrey 7:26 pm on March 29, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Daena, , fargard 19, hereafter, ,   

    Avesta: Translation of Excerpt from Vendidad on the Afterlife 

    Excerpt of verses 88-112 of Fargard 19 of the Vendidad, translated by me from the French translation of Charles-Joseph de Harlez de Deulin, a Catholic scholar.

    ==

    (88) Zarathushtra asked Ahura Mazda: Ahura Mazda, creator of visible beings? (89) Where does the recompense take place? Where is this recompense performed? Where is it executed? Where does it reach the man who in this corporeal world carries it upon his soul?

    (90-93) Ahura Mazda replied: After the man is dead and departed, the daevas, malevolent beings, creators of evil beings, come around him to gnaw upon him. After the third night, when the light advances and spreads its rays, when Mithra, with shining weapons, reaches the summit of the mountains which are filled with a pure brightness, and the sun rises.

    (94-98) Then the daeva Vizaresho seizes the trapped soul of the malevolent daeva-worshipper, the man who lived in crime. For by these paths created in time come both he who is given to evil and he who is given to good, to the Cinwat bridge created by Ahura Mazda. The soul and the intellect search for the share destined for living beings, made in the corporeal world.

    (98-101) Then the consciousness of good actions presents itself promptly, majestic and holy, full of youth, crowned with a diadem, benevolent and strong. The soul of the wicked who did evil is plunged by her into darkness. She lifts the soul of the righteous to the summit of Harabarezaiti, across the Cinwat bridge, following the way of the heavenly Yazatas.

    (102-106) Vohumana rises from his golden throne and says to him: How have you come to us, pure soul! from this transitory world to the eternal world? Transported by joy, the soul of the righteous man approaches the throne of Ahura Mazda, and those of the Ameshaçpentas.

    (107-108) It enters into Garonman, the abode of Ahura Mazda, the abode of the Ameshaçpentas and all the righteous. The malevolent daevas, authors of evil, tremble before the scent of the perfumes that the righteous exhales after his death, (109) as a sheep trapped by a wolf trembles before it.

    (110-112) The righteous gather around him; Nairyoçanha is also present. Nairyoçanha is the minister of Ahura Mazda.

     
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