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  • Earthling 6:26 pm on December 30, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: chemical contaminants, health effects of long-term tocix chemical exposure, long-term danger of toxic chemical, long-term exposure to toxic chemicals, long-term fetus exposure to toxic chemicals   

    Long-term exposure to toxic chemicals 

    By Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

    Toxic chemicals are everywhere – the air, water, food and soil. Exposure to toxic chemicals occurs through breathing, touching and ingesting. The developing fetus is the most vulnerable to toxic chemicals, which can be ingested by the mother when she eats or drinks, or when she breathes contaminated air. She can also introduce toxic chemicals into her system if she applies lotions to her skin, or her skin comes into contact with toxic chemicals.

    Although the developing fetus is the most vulnerable to the exposure to toxic chemicals, any person
    can be highly vulnerable depending on age, health and the length of exposure. Long-term exposure can cause more devastating effects. Also, small children are more vulnerable to toxic chemicals than adults due to their small size and small organs, and the fact that they are growing at a rapid rate.

    Health problems associated with toxic chemical exposure

    The most serious health risks caused by the exposure to toxic chemicals are asthma, childhood cancers, impaired fertility, birth defects and learning disabilities.

    According to Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families, an organization that seeks to reduce the toxic chemicals that people are exposed to, many chronic diseases have increased substantially.

    They state that cancers such as “leukemia, brain cancer and childhood cancers have increased more than 20 percent since 1975.” Cases of asthma doubled between 1990 and 1998 A birth defect causing “undescended testes increased 200 percent between 1970 and 1993.” Autism has increased “tenfold” since the 1990s.

    How people are exposed to toxic chemicals

    Exposure to a toxic chemicals happens when a person has direct contact with a toxic chemical or when a substance they come in contact with is contaminated with the toxic chemical, such as food or drinking
    water, or as in the case of the fetus, the toxic chemical enters the mother’s bloodstream and then is transported to the bloodstream of the fetus. The toxic chemical may have been long-term chemical exposure to the mother, such as her eating contaminated fish for a long period of time.

    People can be exposed to toxic chemicals by breathing, ingesting or through direct skin contact with soil, dust or sediment. Drinking contaminated groundwater or surface water can cause chemical exposure. Showering or swimming in water can also cause chemical exposure either through accidentally swallowing the contaminated water or by skin exposure to the toxic chemical in the water.

    Air contaminants such as hazardous chemical vapors, other chemical contaminants or dust can cause a toxic and long-term chemical exposure.

    Food contaminants happen when food is exposed to direct contact with a contaminant; or food can
    become contaminated through the food chain. The original source of the contaminant can be eaten by fish that are caught by fishermen and then eaten by the consumer with the resulting toxic exposure to the person eating the fish. In the case of the developing fetus, the toxic chemical travels further in the food chain to the developing fetus causing a genetic disorder or genetic mutation.

    Why the developing fetus or young child is more vulnerable

    The developing organs of the developing fetus can be permanently damaged by toxic chemical exposure because the introduction of the toxic chemical will stop the normal development of the developing organs within the fetus.

    Children between birth and six years of age are in a stage of rapid development; and due to this rapid development they may take in a larger dosage of the toxic chemical due to “body chemistry, level of activity and small body size.”

    Chemicals introduced into the developing fetus or small child can “alter many processes essential for normal cell development.” These toxic chemical changes can “cause organs within the body to be altered, impairing proper development to a mature organ.”

    Adolescents are also vulnerable due to their “increased physical activity and curiosity about the world around them.”

    You can find more information about protecting your children from toxic chemical attack on
    the EPA website.

    Conclusion

    It is very important to find out as much as you can about the toxins that can invade your environment in order to protect yourself, your unborn children and your young children from the invasion of toxic chemicals. Long-term exposure is more damaging and therefore it is important to find out what you are eating, what you are drinking, and what household contaminants are living in your environment with you
    and your children.

    Copyright © 2018 Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

     
  • Earthling 4:16 am on November 29, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: aberdeen proving ground, America Cyanamid, American Creosote Works Inc, California Gulch, chemical contaminants, contaminants, epa, epa most polluted places in us, epa superfunds, toxic waste, uepa superfund sites   

    The Most Polluted Places in the US 

    By Carroll Colette J. Yorgey

    The most polluted places in the U.S. are listed on the EPA website and are designated Superfund Sites. Superfund sites are the most urgent clean-up areas in America. EPA lists all clean-up areas, but the ones listed as Superfund are slated for first clean-up, due to the highest amount of toxic pollution.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) started the Superfund program as a remedial program for the most polluted hazardous waste areas in America.

    Some sites take years to clean up. Other sites may never be cleaned up sufficiently to make the area habitable.

    Toxic waste has been polluting our earth for longer than we know and it is just within the later part of the
    20th century that measures were begun to clean up these toxic waste dumps.

    Groundwater and river contamination is the worst type of pollution in all areas across America. EPA has
    listed 2769 sites where there is a record of decision (ROD). You can read these complete records at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/index.htm

    It is important to clean up these sites, as the pollution seeping into groundwater and rivers spreads from
    place to place, from river to river, from groundwater to groundwater, and from groundwater, to our soil and our drinking water.

    EPA divides up its Superfund sites into 10 different Superfund jurisdictions across America. Superfund sites exist in every state across America.

    I have looked at a few of them that seem to be the most prominent being there are many listings for the same site. Here is a list of some of them giving a bit of history of each so you can get an idea of the extent of damage caused by hazardous waste disposal to our groundwater, rivers, and streams and eventually our drinking water:

    1) Aberdeen Proving Ground (Edgewood Area), NC, MD. This is an enormous site comprising 72,000 acres in Maryland alone. More acreage is in North Carolina.

    This is an Army installation and consists of various sites of contamination — 13 sites that have recently been evaluated, 10 sites that are completed but still contain contaminants and are not to be used by “hypothetical future residents.” There are over 35 more sites.

    Contaminants include VOCS, Benzine, PCE, TCE, tolieene, metals, and arsenic.

    The area of contamination is groundwater within the area of Canal Creek, the Canal Creek Aquifer, King’s Creek, and marshes of Canal Creek.

    This area was “a center for research, development, testing and manufacture of military-related chemicals and chemical agents” since 1917.

    “From 1941 to 1952, chemical-warfare agents including mustard, lewisite, adamsite, white phosphorus, munitions, contaminated equipment, and miscellaneous hazardous wastes were disposed of in 35-onsite unlined pits and trenches. Studies have shown that chemicals buried within the pits have compacted groundwater and also interconnecting surface water in Watson Creek from 1949 to the mid-1970’s.”

    Decontamination efforts have also resulted in contamination of the groundwater with chlorinated
    hydrocarbons.

    This site was first listed in 1991.

    2) American Creosote Works, Inc., Pensacola, FL and Jackson, Tennessee.

    This site was listed in 1989 It is a 60-acre site located in Jackson, Tennessee. It was conceived in the
    1930’s as a wood-preservation facility. The contaminants are inorganics, pesticides, PCBs, VOCs, PCP, PAHs, dioxin, arsenic.

    The contamination is located in sediments, soil, and surface water.

    The Pensacola, FL site lists contaminated groundwater, sludge, soil, and sediment.

    The contaminants are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, and volatile organic compounds.

    3) America Cyanamid, Somerset, NJ.

    This company was listed in 1993 and is composed of soil and groundwater contamination.

    It has been involved in chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing for over 75 years.

    The semivolatible organic contaminants are Acetone, Benzene, Methylene, Chloride, Sylenes, 4-Chloroaniline, N-nitroso-diphenylamine, Anthacene, Napthalene, and Phenonthrene.

    Inorganic contaminants are arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and Polychlorinated Biphenol.

    4) California Gulch, Leadville, Co.

    This is a watershed contamination. Located 100 miles southwest of Denver, Co.

    The contaminants are Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc.

    Here the Yak Tunnel discharges 210 tons per year of Cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc into the Arkansas River. The area surrounding the Arkansas River is a public recreational area. The Arkansas River is also used for irrigation, livestock, watering, the public water supply, and fisheries.

    These are just 4 examples of the most polluted areas in the United States. These are Hazardous Waste sites. There are other highly polluted areas such as air pollution, and brownfields, and many other hazardous waste sites that need to be cleaned up but have not made the Superfund list yet.

    Most of the Superfund sites are located at abandoned factories, chemical plants, pharmaceutical plants, and U.S. Military bases.

    The most highly air polluted places exist close to airports with extreme greenhouse gas emissions of CO2 from planes and other vehicles operating in the area. These are also located in large cities, which makes the large city a highly polluted place.

    So you have the isolated areas of hazardous waste pollution and the city concentration of air pollution.

    If you would like to help in cleaning up a hazardous waste site that may be close to your area go to http://www.epa.gov where you can find suggestions for helping in this massive cleanup effort.

    Source: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/index.htm

    Copyright © 2018 Carroll Colette J. Yorgey (Except for the image)

     
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