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  • Earthling 12:14 am on July 17, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Caucasian dumplings, Chiragchai River basin, Dagestan cuisine, Dagestan food, Dagestan pies, Demographics of Tabasaran, Derbent people, Guinness most complex language, hinkal, Khiva, Language with 40 noun cases, Maisum Tabasaran, , Minority people in Russia, Most complex language, Peoples of Dagestan, Rubas basin, Tabasaran cuisine, Tabasaran etymology, Tabasaran food, Tabasaran language, Tabasaran people, Tabasaran Qadiate, Tabasaranar, Tabasaranis   

    Tabasaran people 


    Traditional Tabasaran outfit

    Tabasarans (self-designated as Tabasaranar [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]) are one of the peoples of Dagestan, whose main area of settlement is the southeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus Range. Most of the Tabasarans live in Tabasaran (Rubas basin), Khiva (Chiragchai River basin) and Derbent districts of Dagestan, and the urban population is concentrated mainly in Derbent, as well as Ogni, Kaspiisk and Makhachkala. A small number of Tabasarans can be found in all regions of the North Caucasus. The Tabasarans coexist with the Dargins in the North and Northwest, the Agulas in the Southwest, and the Lezgins in the South.

    Tabasarans are both linguistically and ethnoculturally close to other peoples of Dagestan. The ancestors of the modern Tabasarans historically belonged to a multi-tribal state, Caucasian Albania, and were known under the common name of “Albanians” [16]. According to geneticists, two Y-chromosome haplogroups dominate in Tabasaran – J1 (49%) and R1b (45%) [17]. The Tabasaran people are Sunni Muslims.

    Culture and traditions

    The social life of Tabasarans was traditionally regulated by feudal-patriarchal institutions. Family ceremonies are close in many respects to ceremonies of other peoples of Dagestan. There are widespread traditions of hospitality and respect for elders. The wedding is preceded by matchmaking and collusion (there was also the custom of betrothal of minors); relatives and fellow villagers took part in the wedding, which was accompanied by dancing and singing.

    The main occupations are agriculture (and in some places gardening) and cattle breeding. An important traditional branch of the economy is the production of carpets. Wood and stone carvings are also produced [50].

    Historically in Tabasaran, carpet weaving, woodworking, pottery, patterned weaving, wood and stone carvings, blacksmithing, wool products, paper, linen weaving, felt products, leather, and patterned socks were among the artisinal activities. Now the traditions of making carpets and wooden utensils continue.

    Tabasaran Cuisine

    The traditional food of Tabasarans consists mainly of vegetables, meat and milk. The main dish is hinkal, a kind of dumpling that is eaten with meat, butter, sour milk, garlic and crushed nuts. Another dish is pies with a filling of wild herbs, cottage cheese, and eggs. Meat is eaten in boiled and fried forms. Also eaten are cooked cabbage rolls, dumplings, and pilaf. Dairy products include fresh and sour milk, cottage cheese, sour cream, butter. Bread (cakes) is often fresh, and less frequently leaven. The main drinks are ayran and tea [50].


    The ethnonym tabar-sar-aran (the owner of mountain peaks and coastal plains) comes from the Tabasaran language and originally designated all the inhabitants of the Kaitago-Tabasaran district and part of the Kurinsky district (including Derbent Azerbaijanis, Tatas, some Lezgins), then later became the name of only a more limited group, the modern-day Tabasarans [18]. For a long time this ethnonym was used by the Tabasarans mainly in communications with their foreign-speaking neighbors [18].

    The Tabasaran Language

    The Tabasaran language is classed under the Lezgian branch of the Nakh-dagestani (Northeast dagestani) family of languages.

    The literary Tabasaran language was formed on the basis of the Nitrik southern dialect [37]. The closest language to Tabasaran is the Aghul language. A.M. Dirr, who published a special article on the Tabasaran language in the early 20th century, came to the following conclusion:

    “Tabasaran is a language with undoubtedly Dagestani grammar, but its lexicological material is significantly impoverished: the Tabasaran vocabulary abounds in Persian, Turkish-Tatar and Arabic words. Most of these words penetrated the Tabasaran language through the Tatar language, the influence of which, however, is found not only in the dictionary, but also in grammar” [38].

    The Tabasaran language is included in the Guinness Book of Records as one of the most complex languages in the world (for example, there are 48 cases of nouns) [40]. In the modern Tabasaran language three dialects are distinguished: Nitrik, Suvak, and Galina (Eteg), each of which comprises a group of sub-dialects. The basis of the literary Tabasaran language is the phonetic and grammatical system of the Nitrik dialect. In the lexicon there is a rather significant layer of borrowing. From Farsi it mainly borrowed ancient military, domestic and craft terminology; from Arabic, religious, scientific and philosophical terms; from Russian (or from European languages through Russian), modern scientific and technical and socio-political terminology. There is also a considerable amount of borrowings from the Azerbaijani language. They include both nouns and many complex verbs [41]. The Soviet linguist A.A. Magometov reported on the influence of the Azerbaijani language on Tabasaran: “The influence [of Azerbaijani] in the Tabasaran language was also felt. First of all, it affected the lexical composition of the language, which contains a large number of words that penetrated into Tabasaran through the Azerbaijani language… Borrowed words can sometimes supplant and actually replace Tabasaran words.” [38]

    The written language uses the Russian alphabet. In 1932, a newspaper in the Tabasaran language appeared in Tabasaran. It was called Uiru Tabasaran (“Red Tabasaran”), and served as the the organ of the Tabasaran District Party Committee [42].

    According to the 2010 census, the total number of speakers in the Tabasaran language was 126,136 people [43].

    Tabasaran History

    In the territory of northern Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan from the 4th-3rd centuries BCE and before the IV century there was an ancient state of Caucasian Albania. This state was an alliance of 26 multilingual tribes and peoples, among which were the ancestors of Tabasaran.

    Maisum Tabasaran (principality)

    As a result of the Arab invasion of Dagestan, the territory of Tabasaran became part of the Arab Caliphate. Following the caliphate’s disintegration, the territory became part of Shirvan. In 917, Muhammad Maisum from the Arab Mazyadid dynasty began to rule Tabasaran. After that, the rulers of Tabasaran began to be called “Maisums.” The main enemy of Maisum was the Emirate of Derbent. In the years 944-956, the brother Muhammad Ahmad established his power. In 948, Muhammad became Shirvanshah and transfered control of Tabasaran to his son Haytham. He was succeeded by his brother Ahmad, after which the management of Tabasaran was inherited by his son Haytham II (981-1025). By the beginning of the 12th century the Maisum Tabasaran was divided into 24 counties. At the head of each county there was a local sarhang (commander) [44].

    Tabasaran Qadiate

    In southern Dagestan, the Maisum Tabasaran remained a major feudal kingdom for centuries. Then in the 1570s, civil conflicts broke out between representatives of the Maisum dynasty. A considerable portion of them died, and the survivors, having left Khuchni, moved their residence to Jarag, where they became more vulnerable to strikes from their enemies including Derbent. In Khuchni, the Qadiate of Tabasarana came to power [45]. At the end of the 16th century, Tabasaran experienced a period of hostilities between Turkey and Iran [46].

    Kaitago-Tabasaran District

    In 1860, instead of the former possessions, districts were organized. The Kaitago-Tabasaran District was formed from the territory of the Kaitag Utsmii and Tabasaran. [48]

    In 1895, there were 4 districts in the county: Karakaitag (center: Djibagni), Nizhne-Kaitagskoye (center: Kayakent), North Tabasaran (center: Ersi village), Urkarakhskoye (center: Urkarakh village). [49]

    By 1926 the district was divided into 3 sections: Verkhnee Tabasaran (center: Khuchni village), Dakhadayevsky (center: Majalis village), Safarovsky (center: Jalal-Kent village).

    Historical Demographics

    According to 2010 data, the number of Tabasarans in Russia is about 147,000.

    According to the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there were 14,463 Tabasarans in Dagestan [20]. According to the data for 1886, there were 13,270 Tabasarans in the Kaitago-Tabasaran District [21], and in the Kurinski District, according to data for 1894, there were 35,948 Tabasarans [22].

    According to the 1970 census, Tabasarans in the USSR numbered 55,200 [23].

    According to the 2002 All-Russia Census, the Tabasaran numbered 131,785, of which 53,600 (40.7%) lived in cities and 78,200 in rural areas (59.3%). In 2002, more than 110,000 Tabasarans lived in Dagestan (4.3% of Dagestan’s population), mainly in the regions of Khiva (58.5% of the region’s population) [24], Tabasaran (79.7%) [25], Derbent (10.7%) [26] and Kayakent (1.7%) [27]; and in the cities of Derbent (15.4%) [28], Kaspiisk (5.2%) [29], Dagestan Lights (35.5%) [30], Kizlyar (2%), and Makhachkala (2%) [31].

    During the Soviet period, some of the Tabasarans moved from the mountains to the plains of the Tabasaran and Derbent districts, and also to cities of the republic [32].

    Latest Demographics

    Total Tabasarans: ~ approx. 150,000 (2010)

    Russia: 146,360 (2010) [1]

    Dagestan: 118,848 (2010) [2]

    Stavropol Territory: 6951 (2010) [3]

    Rostov Region: 2481 (2010) [2]

    Chechnya: 1656 (2010) [3]

    Krasnodar Territory: 1651 (2010) [2]

    Saratov Region: 1234 (2010) [2]

    Astrakhan Region: 1082 (2010) [2]

    Ukraine: 900 (2017) [4]

    Uzbekistan: 700 (2017) [5]

    Turkmenistan: 200 (2017) [6]

    Azerbaijan: 300 (2017) [7]

    Kazakhstan: 300 (2017) [8]

    Belarus: 57 (2009) [9]

    Latvia: 6 (2010) [10]

    Article translated from Russian Wikipedia (http://www.wiki-zero.net/index.php?q=aHR0cHM6Ly9ydS53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvJUQwJUEyJUQwJUIwJUQwJUIxJUQwJUIwJUQxJTgxJUQwJUIwJUQxJTgwJUQwJUIwJUQwJUJEJUQxJThC)


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  • Earthling 9:40 pm on July 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: aral sea, aral sea drying, , conflicts over water, drying of the aral sea, dushanbe, eu, eu central asian relations, eu in central asia, european union, fund for saving the aral sea, peter burian, , tashkent, uzbekistan, water conflicts, water cooperation, water dispute, water in central asia, water scarcity in central asia   

    The EU welcomes water cooperation between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan 

    Peter Burian, a special representative of the European Union in the countries of Central Asia, stated in an exclusive interview with Radio Ozodi that he welcomes the close cooperation of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan on the issue of the rational use of water resources. The conversation took place on June 21 during the International Water Conference in Dushanbe.

    Peter Burian: Access of the population of Central Asia, including Tajikistan, to drinking water is among the priorities of EU policy. Tajikistan is at the source of the region’s water resources, and therefore the country’s inhabitants have quite sufficient access to water. Yet Tajikistan is faced with the problem of protecting water resources. Water is still flowing in rivers and water bodies, but this will not continue indefinitely. We are now witnessing how in the past, not all water sources were used rationally. Therefore, we want to offer the Tajik authorities our experience and technical developments in this direction. Over the past decade, the EU has invested 2.5 billion euros in various projects in 60 countries, and 4 billion euros exclusively for water projects. Now it has become obvious that these funds are not enough. We can see that the current approach to the clean water sources in the region is not entirely satisfactory. The drying out of the Aral Sea is a vivid example. The drying of the Aral Sea cannot be stopped, but it is within out power to minimize the effects of drying. In the autumn of this year, a meeting will be held between the leaders of the countries of the region who are included in the Fund for Saving the Aral Sea, and this issue will be raised jointly with Western experts.

    Radio Ozodi: In the past, the countries in the upper and lower reaches of the region had disagreements over the use of water resources. Now it seems that the intensity of these disagreements has decreased. Do you not rule out the possibility of a repetition of such disagreements in the future?

    Peter Burian: I welcome the current state of cooperation of the countries of the region, which includes agreement on the rational use of water resources. The countries of the lower reaches and the countries of the upper reaches are solving this issue together. All countries must equally bear the costs of preserving water resources. For example, in cases where Tajikistan faces floods annually.

    Radio Ozodi: In other words, should the countries of the lower reaches be compensated for the costs of protecting water resources?

    Peter Burian: I can’t foresee this kind of cooperation, but all countries should contribute to the protection of water resources. Only in this case will conditions for sustainable development appear. It should be noted that, compared with past years, the current level of cooperation between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan is encouraging and welcomed by the European Union.

    Translated from gumilev-center.tj: http://www.gumilev-center.tj/es-privetstvuet-tesnoe-sotrudnichestvo-dushanbe-i-tashkenta-v-vodnom-voprose/

  • Earthling 1:08 am on July 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Alexander Evstifeev, Alexander Prokhanov, Cultural Capital, cultural celebration, ethnic festivities, Finno-Ugria, Finno-Ugrian, Finno-Ugrian heroes, Finno-Ugric, finno-ugric wedding rites, Finno-Ugric World, Mari El, Mikhail Vasyutin, Ministry of Culture, Morkinsky district, Press and Nationalities, Shan Payrem, Shorunzha, snake teeth, witch's owls   

    Russia: Shorunja in Mari El will be the cultural capital of the Finno-Ugrians 

    In Mari El, the preparations for the “Cultural Capital of the Finno-Ugrian World” project are in full swing.
    The first vice president of the region’s government, Mikhail Vasyutin, held a meeting on events proceeding from the election of the village Shorunza, Morkinsky District, as the cultural capital of Finno-Ugria for 2019.

    The news that Mari El village won the international competition for this high rank came from the Second Forum of Finno-Ugric Villages, in Estonia. Shorunza defeated the village of Arkhangelskoye in the Perm region and the town of Zirz in Hungary.

    The “Cultural Capital of the Finno-Ugric World” project in Mari El is expected to involve cultural events at the pan-Russian and international levels. One of the most striking events will be the Festival of Finno-Ugric Wedding Rites, “Shan Payrem”.

    In the Ministry of Culture, Press and Nationalities, the RMEs have created a working group, which is a kind of headquarters for the preparations. In order for the work to be carried out as efficiently as possible, it was decided at the meeting to create an organizing committee for the project at the national level.

    Shorunzha is one of the ancient villages of the Mari El region. The unique features of its history, religions, education, culture, traditions and rites attract scholars and tourists from around the country. Guests are interested in springs, sacred groves, water mills, and Mari El legends about snake teeth, witch’s owls, and heroes.

    Recently the head of Mari El, Alexander Evstifeev, had a meeting with the famous writer and publicist Alexander Prokhanov, and they discussed the topic of attracting tourists to the region. As Evstifeev believes, some of the main factors attracting tourists to Mari El are the amazing landscapes and ethnic features of the people living in the republic.

  • Earthling 5:08 pm on June 21, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: banned meat, banned meat in Russia, beef, , , , Kukmorsky, Kukmorsky district, Kukmorsky district prosecutor, Kukmorsky prosecutor, offal, pork, , , , , Russian sanctions,   

    Russia: Prosecutors seek to block online information about forbidden meat 

    In Tatarstan, the local prosecutor’s office is seeking to block websites selling prohibited products from a number of countries to Russia.

    In the Kukmorsky District of the Republic of Tatarstan, the prosecutor’s office, while monitoring the internet for banned information, found two websites that contained information about direct imports of beef, pork and offal from a number of countries that Russia had imposed sanctions on.

    However, from the information published on the website of the Kukmorsky Prosecutor’s Office, it is not entirely clear from which countries the Russian users are offered to purchase beef, pork and offal. Although at first the prosecutors talk about Ukraine, South America and the EU, when they refer to the RF Government decree, it is already about North America:

    “In accordance with Clause 1 of the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation ‘On measures to implement the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of August 6, 2014 No. 560 On the Application of Special Economic Measures to Ensure the Security of the Russian Federation’, by December 31, 2018, the importation to the Russian Federation of agricultural products, raw materials and food products originating from the United States of America, the countries of the European Union, Canada, Australia, the Kingdom of Norway, Ukraine, the Republic of Albania, Montenegro Iceland, the Republic of Iceland and the Principality of Liechtenstein.”

    Perhaps the work of the prosecutors from Tatarstan was affected by the blocks by Roskomnadzor, which led to the malfunctioning of Google services, including geographic focus?

    In order to suppress unlawful activities, the district prosecutor requested the court to recognize this information as prohibited for distribution throughout the Russian Federation and to block the resources. The prosecutor’s request is currently under consideration, as reported on the website of the Kukmorsky Prosecutor’s Office.

    Translated from RosKomSvoboda: https://roskomsvoboda.org/39741/

  • Earthling 9:25 pm on June 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: ethnic languages, , , , mandatory study of languages in russia, , mother tongue, , , russian language, ,   

    Russia: State Duma resolves issue of state language education 

    Recently, the State Duma hosted an extended meeting for a task group on finalizing the amendments to the Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation”. The big problem revolving around the study of state languages, which manifested itself after complaints from parents in Tatarstan, seems to have been resolved. Deputies spoke about the coming changes, as reported by FederalPress.

    The members of the working group held the discussion behind closed doors. We do not exclude the possibility that the appearance of the deputies before journalists was preceded by verbal battles, because the problem of studying national languages ​​in schools so recently turned out to be socially explosive. This meeting was preceded by a scandal in Tatarstan, where the parents of schoolchildren complained that in educational institutions too many hours are dedicated to the study of the Tatar language. In their view, education of the Russian language suffered because of this. Then there were the first rumors, the essence of which was reduced to one — native languages ​​will no longer be mandatory in the curriculum. Representatives of ethnic communities were outraged by this prospect.

    Th Chairman of the State Duma Committee for Education and Science, Vyacheslav Nikonov, came out with a statement to reassure supporters of the compulsory study of national languages. “Native languages ​​and native literature will remain compulsory in the educational program,” Nikonov told reporters.

    According to him, all the participants of the working group are interested in preserving the national languages ​​of all the peoples of Russia. Nikonov announced the creation of a special fund which will improve teaching programs. In addition, as the working group members said, the current proposals need to be complemented with a number of by-laws.

    “The decision was made to write down, in the draft resolution, a proposal to create a plan for teaching native and state languages ​​of the Russian Federation. I am sure we will be able to do a lot to support the study of the native and state languages ​​of the Russian Federation through the creation of a fund that will develop textbooks and standards for studying the languages ​​of the peoples who inhabit our country,” Nikonov said.

    Deputy Andrei Isaev said that the task group faced a very difficult task: to ensure voluntary participation in the choice and study of language,s and at the same time ensure the compulsory study of native languages. The parliamentarian assured that a compromise was found. It would seem that all parties should be happy. But there is a nuance.

    “Teaching the state languages ​​of the republics, the native languages, ​​remains mandatory in the curriculum. There can be no doubt of this. Under this bill, the Russian language will be included in the list native languages; currently it is only the state language of the country. Including it among the native languages ​​will allow you to choose Russian as your native language. The right for parents or legal representatives to choose a mother tongue,” Isaev explained.

    Skeptical comments from regional politicians and public figures appeared in the local presses, claiming that state ethnic identities could suffer as a consequence of such a reform and the number of students choosing state languages ​​would be sharply reduced. They were challenged by members of the task group, and such fears were called baseless.

    To confirm their good intentions, parliamentarians spoke about the inspections of the Rosobrnadzor (Federal Service for the Supervision of Education and Science) and the Prosecutor General’s Office into language issues in the national republics. According to them, a number of programs and textbooks have not been examined. However, they did not mention specific figures, names, or regions. In the margins of the meeting, the members of the task group clarified that the specifics are expected at the next regular meeting of the State Duma.

    The first reading of the bill will be held on June 19.

    Translated from gumilev-center.ru: http://www.gumilev-center.ru/gosduma-preodolela-yazykovojj-barer-deputaty-opredelilas-s-tem-kak-v-shkolakh-budut-izuchat-nacionalnye-yazyki/

  • Earthling 12:58 am on June 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: altai culture, celebrating minorities, , Ethnic cultures in Russia, , ethnic music concert, ethno-festical, folklore competition, handicraft competition, homys, khakass culture, khoburakh, koor, Master o the Yamal, minority cultures in russia, peoples of the north, preservation of folk art, preservation of traditional crafts, , russia ethnic sports, salekhard, Soul of the Tundra, Spirit of the Tundra, traditional ethnic instruments in russia, tundra sports, yah   

    Russia: Ethno-festival “Soul of the Tundra” takes place in Salekhard 


    The third “Soul of the Tundra” ethno-festival began in Salekhard on June 9, according to National Accent.

    On the first day, a handicraft competition was held, as well as a workshop on “Development and preservation of traditional crafts and folk art”. The opening of the festival featured creative teams, national sports teams, and sampling of national dishes.

    Next, guests beheld the Folklore Competition of the Peoples of the North, the “Master of the Yamal” competition, and the “World of Crafts” fair. The festival ended with a big concert of ethnic music. The artists presented throat singing, elements of Khakass and Altai folk music, ethno-rock, etc., with modern instruments as well as traditional ones: the Yah, Homys, Khoburakh, Koor, and others.

    Translated from gumilev-center.ru: http://www.gumilev-center.ru/ehtnofestival-dusha-tundry-startoval-v-salekharde/

  • Earthling 3:22 am on June 15, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Adlan Dinaev, Adnan Nagaev, Avars, Chechen, Chechen culture, Chechen culture festival, Chechen patriotism, Chechnya, Cossacks, Dzhambulat Umarov, Grozny, Kadyrov, Nogais, Russia Day, Russia Day in Chechnya, Russia Day in Grozny, Russian partiotism, Sultan Tagaev, , Timur Aliyev, Turks, World of Peoples’ Cultures in the Chechen Republic   

    Russia: Chechen cultural festival celebrated in Grozny 


    The event was organized in the Press House on the initiative of the Ministry of the Chechen Republic on National Policy, Communications Violations, Press and Information, reports Chechnya Today.

    On the eve of Russia Day, which was traditionally celebrated in the country on June 12, the state festival “World of Peoples’ Cultures in the Chechen Republic” was held in the Press House.

    At the festival were participants from national and cultural centers of all ethnic groups in the region: Russians, Avars, Tatars, Nogais, Turks, Cossacks and many others. The honorary guests at the event included many senior members of the Chechen government such as Timur Aliyev, Dzhambulat Umarov, Adnan Nagaev, Sultan Tagaev, and Adlan Dinaev, as well as representatives of public and religious organizations, and various intellectuals.

    Dzhambulat Umarov, the Chechen Minister of National Policy, congratulated the audience on the upcoming holiday. In his speech, he noted the engagement of Chechnya not only in its own affairs, but also for the whole country.

    “The Chechen Republic, with its harmonious multinationality in which its people live, demonstrates its continued loyalty to the path taken by the First President of the Chechen Republic, the Hero of Russia, Akhmat Kadyrov. Today, this course yields its creative fruits. The Chechen people were and are a powerful and cementing part of the Russian state. I think that in the days of difficulty for our nation, we should be as unified as ever,” said the Czech Republic’s Minister for National Policy.

    The Assistant to the Head of the Chechen Republic, Chairman of the Council under the Head of the Chechen Republic on the Development of Civil Society and Individual Rights, Timur Aliyev, said that the Russia Day is a holiday for the whole country and an important event in the life of its citizens.

    “We are celebrating this day for the second decade and it shows that the Russian state has been maintained for a very long time. No forces can undermine the integrity of the country and Russian civil society,” Timur Aliyev added.

    The festival ended with performances by folk groups from cultural centers of Chechnya.

    Translated from gumilev-center.ru: http://www.gumilev-center.ru/v-groznom-sostoyalsya-festival-kultur-narodov-chechni/

  • Earthling 12:11 am on June 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Batih, Battle of Batih, Battle of Mount Batih, Bohman Khmelnitsky, Crimean Tatar History, Marcin Kalinowski, Mount Batih, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Timos, Timos Khmelnitsky, Treaty of Bila Tserkva, Ukrainian History, Ukrainian national heroes, Ukrainian victory, Zaporozhia Cossacks   

    1652: The Battle of Batih, Decider of Ukraine’s Fate 

    On June 1-2, 1652, the Battle of Batih took place. It was one of the biggest battles between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Zaporozhian Cossack army during the rebellion of Bohdan Khmelnitsky. This event is often compared with the battle of Cannes, in which Carthage defeated the Roman army in spite of the Romans’ superior material strength. Khmelnitsky was one of the most important Ukrainian leaders in history, although his reputation is stained by the massacres of tens of thousands of Jews that took place under his rule.


    A year before the Battle of Batih was the Battle of Bila Tserkva, which was fought between the allied Crimean-Cossack army and the army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Cossacks were defeated amd Khmelnitsky signed the Treaty of Bila Tserkva, which put the people of Zaporozhia in a very difficult position. In particular, the treaty required Khmelnitsky to break off relations with the Crimean Khanate.

    In the Spring of 1652, the Cossacks had decided to begin preparations for more military operations against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but they needed a pretext. Soon the occasion came along: the son of Bohdan Khmelnitsky, Timos, went to Moldova to marry the daughter of the ruler and form an alliance against the Poles. Having learned about the Cossacks’ intentions, the Pole Marcin Kalinowsky went to meet the enemy.

    The troops met at Mount Batih. The 20,000-man army of the Commonwealth was pitted against the army of Khmelnitsky, which included the Chigirinsky, Cherkasy, Korsun and Pereyaslav Cossack regiments. On June 1, 1652 the battle began. At first the Poles pressed on the Crimean-Cossack detachments, but Khmelnitsky’s army was able to force the enemy to retreat. Only towards the night did the hostilities cease.

    Coin depicting the battle. Source: wikipedia.com

    Among the ranks of the Polish army, rumors spread about the numerical superiority of the Cossacks, and thereby fear was spread among the soldiers. This was a traditional Mongol/Tatar strategy going back to the days of Genghis Khan. Panic was combined with unhappiness with the actions of Hetman Kalinowsky, who could not reliably know the number of Cossacks and did not order a retreat in time. At the onset of dawn, scuffles broke out within the army, and a fire broke out somewhere in the camp. For the Cossacks this was a great time to attack – they came at the Polish camp from different directions. A part of Kalinowski’s army fled, and a part showed resistance. But with a divided army, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth’s army stood virtually no chance.

    Hetman Kalinowsky and a brother of the Polish king perished in the battle of Batih. The road to Moldova was open to the Cossacks. Khmelnitsky kept several hundred prisoners, and executed the rest. The victory of the Cossacks in the Battle of Batih raised the spirits of the people. By the way, the marriage of Khmelnitsky’s son Timos did not happen.

    This victory led to Ukraine’s independence from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which was followed by absorption into the Russian Empire.

    Translated from http://diletant.media/articles/41240083/

  • Earthling 3:20 pm on June 8, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Borrowed words in Russian, Linguistics, Mongol influence on Russia, Mongol language, Mongol words in Russian, Mongolian language, Tatar words in Russian   

    Mongolisms in the Russian Language 

    Mongolian is considered to be an ancient language. The Mongol yoke left its mark not only on the history of Russia, but also on its language. To this day Russian speakers still use words borrowed from their conquerors on a regular basis.

    Translation from the Mongolian language in the 13th century allowed Russians to understand the meanings of many words and to use these in order to successfully communicate with their uninvited guests.

    For starters, the Mongols called their weapons “mes” (мэс), and the inhabitants of medieval Rus decided to redo it in their own manner. Thus, the word for sword, “myech” (меч), was born, and it has been used for many centuries. The traditional word for a brave knight, “bogatyr” (богатырь), also came from the Mongolian language. The Mongols called their great men “bagatur” or “baatar”. This word is also seen in the English and Hindi form “bahadur”.

    The Mongols left their tracks in the field of medicine too. For example, a chiropractor or healer was called “bariach” (бариач). The word appealed to the local population, and today it sounds like the Russian “vrach” (врач), denoting the most noble human profession.

    After the appearance of the Mongols of the Golden Horde in Russia, people began to rename some domestic animals. So, the cat was affectionately called “murka” (муркой), from the Mongolian “muur” (муур), and the cow herd was headed by the “buyk” (бык), a derivative of the Mongolian “bukh” (бух).

    More Mongolian words in Russian:

    Kharuul = Karaul (defensive guard)

    Zasuul = Yesual (a military rank)

    Khonuur = Konura (dog kennel)

    Tulkhekh = Tolkat (to push)

    Tereg = Tyelega (cart)

    Ideh = Yeda (food)

    Bichi = Pishi (to write)

    Byees = Vosh (louse)

    Balmad = Balamut (reckless)

    Barlag = Burlak (servant, farmhand)

    Alaach = Palach (executioner)

    Khaalga (Door) = The city of Kaluga

    Shar Dov (Yellow Hills) = The city of Saratov

    You may see the proper Cyrillic spellings of these words in the original article.

    This article was translated from gumilev-center.ru (http://www.gumilev-center.ru/mongolizmy-v-russkom-yazyke/)

  • Earthling 2:32 pm on June 6, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Bashkortostan, for a goat, horse racing, horse sports, horseback battles, horseback combat, Kok-Bor, Kyrgyzstan nomad games, nomad sports, nomad sports competition, Nomadic sports competition, participation in world nomad games, , Sports in Bashkortostan, Sports in Russia, Traditional nomadic sports, World Nomad Games   

    Russia: Bashkortostan to witness horseback battles for goats 


    For the first time Bashkortostan will host competitions for participation in the World Nomad Games. Ethnic sports competitions will be held on June 16 near lake Bannoye in Abzelilovsky District of Bashkiria. Bashkortostan will be represented by more than a hundred participants, all masters of ethnic sports.

    The winners will perform at the third World Nomad Games, which are held every two years and will take place in September 2018 in Kyrgyzstan.

    Spectators of the event will enjoy an exciting fight from the sidelines, Kok-Bor (battle for the goat on horseback), horse racing, as well as dice and traditional board games. Together with the competitions there will be diverse ethno-cultural programs, representing various aspects of traditional culture.

    Translated from gumilev-center.ru: http://www.gumilev-center.ru/v-iyune-bashkiriyu-ozhidaet-konnaya-bitva-za-kozla/

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