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  • Earthling 2:23 am on September 18, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Biblical symbol, Book of Ezra, Bulgarian symbol, Byzantine Symbol, double-headed eagle, Origins of russian eagle symbol, origins of three-headed eagle, origins of two-headed eagle, Russian eagle emblem, Russian eagle symbol, Russian emblem, Russian symbol, three-headed eagle, triple-headed eagle, two-headed eagle   

    Origins of the Russian eagle emblem 

    The Byzantine symbol of a two-headed eagle was made an emblem of Russia by Tsar Ivan III after his marriage to the Byzantine princess Sophia Palaiologina. So it is written in the textbooks. However, there was no such state symbol in Byzantium.

    The image of a two-headed bird could indeed be found in the Imperial Palace of Constantinople, but only in the form of an ornament. ,This bird was not depicted on any known seals or coins. But by the 15th century she had already proudly spread her wings on the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire, and on the coins of the second Bulgarian kingdom, where she was depicted with a lion.

    Another reason to doubt the Byzantine origin of the eagle is its color. In Constantinople ornaments, the two-headed bird is always white, while in Germany and Bulgaria it is black. There is only one mention of the color of the Russian double-headed eagle in the first decades of its nesting in Russia: The Oprichnik (Special Police Force) German Heinrich von Staden, describing the Oprichniy palace located on Vagankovskom hill in Moscow, mentions that on the southern gate there was a depiction of two lions and a black two-headed eagle with outstretched wings.

    Most likely, the double-headed eagle was brought to Russia by the Bulgarians, whose mass emigration began after the capture of Constantinople by the Turks. In addition to symbolism and Orthodox scholarship, they brought the idea of ​​the third Rome to Moscow. Historian Igor Danilevsky offers a narrative that cleverly links the two-headed eagle, the idea of ​​the third Rome, and the flight of the Bulgarians to Russia. According to his hypothesis, the image of a wise bird goes back to the third book of the biblical prophet Ezra. In this work, which many churches consider apocryphal, there is an eagle having a discussion with a lion. Admittedly, the eagle in Ezra does not have two heads, but three. During the conversation, the middle head becomes invisible, but continues to talk with the lion, and the conversation is about the appearance in the future of a new stronghold of faith.

    The third book of Ezra was introduced into the Orthodox canon in the 15th century by Bulgarian scribes. Almost immediately, the two-headed eagle appeared on the royal seal. Several decades later in Russia there was talk about Moscow being the third Rome. A little later, two eagle heads were depicted with small crowns, while a large central crown settled between them over an empty space. Does it not crown the head of the invisible but wisest eagle, who predicted the future appearance of the third stronghold of Christianity?

    Translated from http://diletant.media/articles/41153968/

     
  • Earthling 11:57 am on September 13, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Bob Marley of the 21st century, Ethiopian musician, Great Ethiopian hero, Teddy Afro   

    Teddy Afro 

    Tewodros Kassahun, commonly known by his stage name Teddy Afro, is an Ethiopian pop musician whose music blends traditional Ethiopian music with elements of reggae. He is one of the most popular musicians in Ethiopia today. Some of his song lyrics are interpreted as subversive, and this has led to problems between him and the Ethiopian government. Teddy is also known for his philanthropy, which is often in the form of large donations to charities in Ethiopia.

    Biography

    Teddy was born in Addis Ababa on July 14, 1976. His father was Kassahun Germamo, a popular songwriter. His mother was Tilaye Arage, a dancer. As a child, Teddy’s parents did not want him to become a musician. He was raised as a Christian and remains one.

    In 2001, Teddy released his first album, “Abugida”. “Abugida” is a Ge’ez word meaning “beginning”. This album brought him rapid success. In 2004, he released a single, “Tarik Teserra”, which means “History was Made”. This song celebrates the world record holder and Olympic gold medalist in long-distance running, Kenenisa Bekele.

    Teddy’s third album, “Yasteserval”, was released a week before parliamentary elections in 2005. “Yasteserval” means “forgiveness”. The title song addresses the reign of corruption in Ethiopia and calls upon Ethiopians to forgive each other and unite. This album was unpopular with the Ethiopian government, who banned it on radio and television. This ban increased Teddy’s popularity.

    In 2005, Teddy Afro performed at the 60th Bob Marley Anniversary concert alongside Bob Marley’s descendants. This earned him international recognition.

    In late 2006, Teddy was suspected of involvement in a hit-and-run drunk driving incident in which someone was killed. The Ethiopian government sentenced him to six years in prison. His fans were very upset and made demonstrations. The perception that Teddy was being suppressed for speaking out against the government increased his fame. After serving 18 months, Teddy was released early in 2009 for good behavior.

    Upon his release from prison, Teddy performed at the Addis Ababa Stadium for an audience of over 60,000 people. His career continued to prosper.

    In 2012, Teddy released his next album, “Tikur Sew”. “Tikur Sew” means “Black Person”. This album glorifies King Menelik II and celebrates the Battle of Adawa, in which the Ethiopians defeated the Italians and thereby prevented Ethiopia from being colonized like the rest of Africa.

    Also in 2012, Teddy became engaged to his girlfriend Amleset Muchie. Amleset is a former beauty pageant contestant and current actress and producer. They later married.

    Following the release of “Tikur Sew”, Teddy has toured Ethiopia and the world with his band, called The Abugida Band. In 2017, he released his latest album, “Ethiopia”.

    Musical Style and Legacy

    Teddy Afro’s music combines reggae rhythms with traditional Ethiopian music. He sings in Amharaic. He has been particularly influenced by Tilahun Gessesse and Bob Marley. His lyrics are often about freedom, emancipation, and tyranny. They are widely interpreted to be indirect criticisms of the Ethiopian government. A number of Teddy Afro’s songs glorify Ethiopia’s past and especially the last Ethiopian kings, Haile Selassie and Menelik II.

    Albums

    Abugida (2001)

    Tarik Tesera (2004)

    Yasteseryal (2005)

    Yasteseryal Edition 2 (2005)

    Best Collection-Nahom Volume 14 (2006)

    Tikur Sew (2012)

    References

    http://teddyafro.info/about/

    http://www.durame.com/2012/05/teddy-afros-biography.html

    http://www.koraawards.com/en/music/biography-teddy-afro/

    http://artistwiki.com/teddy-afro/biography

    https://everipedia.org/wiki/Teddy_Afro/

    Article written by me for Lunyr

     
  • Earthling 1:40 am on September 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: absurdism in russian politics, buccal epithelium, crimea, critical information infrastructure attacks in russia, dangerous reposts on vk, database of internet extremists, demons, elina mamedova, , how to bypass internet censorship in uzbekistan, , internet censorship in uzbekistan, , internet freedom in uzbekistan, National Coordination Center for Computer Incidents, reposts on vkontakte, risk of reposting, , , terrorists using telegram in uzbekistan, theater of absurdity, uzbekistan censorship, uzbekistan vpn, vkontakte repost, vpn in uzbekistan, yalta   

    September Internet Freedom Update 

    Russian government establishes center for combating cyberattacks

    By the order of the head of the FSB, the National Coordination Center for Computer Incidents (NCCCI) as been established. This center will coordinate defenses from cyberattacks of critical information infrastructure.

    (Translated from https://roskomsvoboda.org/41584/)

    Woman accused of internet extremism is asked for DNA and voice samples

    The defense of the 27-year-old Crimean woman Elina Mamedova assumes that these requests are used by the authorities to form a certain database of “extremists”.

    The Investigative Committee demanded from a resident of Yalta, 27-year-old Elina Mamedova, accused of extremism for her posts on the internet, that she provide samples of saliva, voice and buccal epithelium (DNA collected via a cotton swab in the cheek). This was reported by her lawyer, Alexei Ladin of the human rights group Agora, who suggested that these samples are needed to form a “database of extremists”.

    Ladin also said:

    Obviously, the evidentiary value of samples of voice, saliva and DNA borders on absurdity. …The defense is convinced that the criminal prosecution of Elina Mamedova is unconstitutional, in connection with which she has refused to provide samples, in order to minimize her participation in the theater of absurdity.”

    Mamedov is accused of inciting hatred or enmity on the basis of nationality (Part 1, Article 282 of the Criminal Code). The criminal case was opened on the basis of reposts on VKontakte, which she shared back in 2014 and 2015.

    (Translated from https://roskomsvoboda.org/41549)

    In Uzbekistan, officialized internet censorship is responded to with instructions to circumvent it

    The Uzbek authorities have officially approved the rules for blocking websites, although this country has long restricted access to internet resources that provide alternative information about events in the country.

    Against the backdrop of the adoption of these rules, and also in reaction to some Facebook malfunctions which were mistaken for blocks, popular web publications began to publish instructions on circumvention of blocks, and the usage of VPNs in particular. Examples have been given for VPN installation and relevant browser extensions and phone applications.

    The difficulties in accessing Facebook were encountered by users of several countries in early September. The failure partially touched the US, as well as Europe and Asia. These problems were explained as technical problems. Later it was reported that access to the service in Uzbekistan was still absent, although Facebook could be accessed via VPN.

    Meanwhile, in Uzbekistan, resources that provide alternative information about events in the country have long been blocked. Access to the Fergana website was blocked after the 2005 Andijon events . However, the authorities officially denied blocking the website. Popular instant messengers as Skype, Telegram, Viber and WhatsApp have also been blocked. Online communications, according to some Central Asian governments, are the main tool of terrorists.

    (Translated from https://roskomsvoboda.org)

     
  • Earthling 12:42 pm on September 9, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Author of War and Peace, Christian anarchist, Christian pacifist, great heroes of Russia, Greatest author of all time, greatest novelist, Incredible people, Inspirer of Gandhi, Inspirer of Martin Luther King Jr., Pacifist, Russian author, Russian writer, Saint   

    Who was Tolstoy? 

     

    tolstory1

    Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (b. 1828 in Yasnaya Polyana, Tula, Russia – d. 1910 in Astapovo, Ryazan, Russia), commonly known as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is known for his realistic novels, most famously the lengthy War and Peace and Anna Karenina. He was also a preacher of a pacifistic interpretation of Christianity that influenced Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. He is widely considered one of the greatest novelists of all time, and his works are frequently listed among the best ever written.

    Get his writings here:

    http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/author/136

    https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Author:Lev_Nikolayevich_Tolstoy

    Biography

    Tolstoy came from an aristocratic family. His father was Count Nikolai Ilyich Tolstoy, and his mother was Maria Nikolayevna. His mother died when he was a baby, and his father died seven years later. Leo had four older siblings and later one younger sibling. They were initially raised on the family’s estate at Yasnaya Polyana, in Tula Oblast. Leo would later inherit this property in 1847, and kept it as his home for the remainder of his life.

    Custody of Leo and his siblings was transferred to their grandmother, who died 11 months after their father. They then lived with their aunt Aleksandra until she died in 1841. They went to live with another aunt in Kazan, where they remained. Tolstoy enrolled in the university in Kazan in 1844 to study oriental languages.

    In his early youth, Tolstoy had an interest in literature, notably Pushkin and the Bible. Later he also took inspiration from the writings of Rousseau, Lermontov, Schiller, D. V. Grigorovich, Laurence Sterne, and Charles Dickens. In spite of his literary and intellectual interests, Tolstoy did not do well at the university. He stopped studying oriental languages and switched to law; it was at this point that he encountered many of the writers who influenced him the most. Nevertheless, he was largely preoccupied with drinking, gambling, and promiscuity. [1] When he inherited the family property in 1847, he dropped out of school and returned to Yasnaya Polyana.

    Tolstoy continued to lead an indulgent life for the next few years, in spite of making efforts at self-improvement. He began keeping a diary, and would later use these diaries for inspiration in his writings.

    In 1851, Tolstoy joined the army in the Caucasus, where his brother Nikolai was also serving. Three years later, he became an officer. He served in Ukraine, first on the Danube and then in the Crimea. Later describing this period of his life, Tolstoy wrote: “Lying, robbery, adultery of all kinds, drunkenness, violence, and murder, all were committed by me, not one crime omitted, and yet I was not the less considered by my equals to be a comparatively moral man.” [2]

    Tolstoy began his career as a writer while in the army. His first publication was Childhood, in 1852. This was a semi-fictional novel about childhood, incorporating many of Tolstoy’s own memories. It was well-received and prompted a sequel. Tolstoy also published some military stories.

    In 1956, Tolstoy left the army and went to pursue a career as a writer in St. Petersburg. He associated with writers, critics, and intellectuals. He was popular, yet had some difficulty getting along with other writers found the lifestyle of a celebrity writer unpleasant. In 1857, he went to Paris, gambled away his money, then returned to Russia.

    In the late 1850s, Tolstoy oriented himself towards education. He undertook to educate the children of his serfs. He founded a school at Yasnaya Polyana and studied European educational theory. From 1862-3, he published a periodical Yasnaya Polyana, containing his writings on educational theory.

    In 1862, Tolstoy married Sofiya Andreevna Bers. Over the course of their marriage, they had 13 children, three of whom died in infancy. Tolstoy handed over the task of teaching to others and occupied himself with the management of his estate. He also continued to write and spent many years working on War and Peace, which he finished in 1869. Upon finishing this colossal work, he focused on education again until 1975, writing pedagogical works that came to be widely used in Russian schools. From 1873 to 1877, Tolstoy published his second large work in installments, Anna Karenina.

    In the 1870s, Tolstoy experienced an existential crisis. He took inspiration from Schopenhauer’s philosophy of self-denial and then found even greater solace in the teachings of Jesus in the New Testament. He wrote a work describing his inner conversion, Confession, and several religious works including What I Believe and A Harmony and Translation of the Four Gospels. He became devoted to preaching his non-violent and perennialistic interpretation of Christianity.

    In 1882, Tolstoy participated in a census of Moscow. He witnessed great poverty, and later described this in What Then Should We do? His 1893 book The Kingdom of God is Within You had a huge impact on Mohandas Gandhi. He also continued to write fiction; the most famous work from his late period was The Death of Ivan Ilyich.

    Tolstoy was excommunicated by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1901. The majority of his works from his later period were altered before publication or banned. He had a number of disciples eager to learn from him. Tolstoy passed away in Astapovo in 1910, but his influence and Tolstoyism remained.

    References

    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Leo-Tolstoy [1]

    https://www.biography.com/people/leo-tolstoy-9508518 [2]

    http://lol-russ.umn.edu/PopLit/overview_of_the_life_and_works_of_leo_tolstoy.htm

    http://www.notablebiographies.com/St-Tr/Tolstoy-Leo.html

    https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/leo-tolstoy-65.php

    Article written by me for Lunyr

     
  • Earthling 12:51 am on September 7, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Famous Russian composer, Prokofiev, , Sergei Prokofiev,   

    Sergei Prokoiev 

    Sergei Prokofiev (Born April 23, 1891 in Donetsk, Ukraine — Died March 5, 1953 in Moscow, Russia) was a Russian modernist composer, pianist and conductor who is known for his original and inventive works. Prokofiev composed several masterpieces across different musical genres. He is by far one of the most famous 20th century composers and his music is widely played across the world to this day.

    Biography

    Early years and education

    Prokofiev was born in 1891 Sontsovka now known as Krasne, in Donetsk in the Ukraine. He was an only child, since his sisters had died in infancy. His father was an agricultural engineer, and his mother was a pianist.

    Prokofiev had great interest in music. His first piano lessons came from his mother. He began composing around age five. In 1902, he began taking private compositions lessons. His mother also arranged for him to go to the opera in Moscow. In Moscow, the great composer and teacher Sergei Taneyev recommended Prokofiev to the great composer Reinhold Gliere, who then went to Sontsovka twice to teach Prokofiev piano, music theory, and composition.

    In 1904, Prokofiev went to St. Petersburg and entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory. He studied orchestration with Rimsky-Korsakovand music theory with Lyadov. He befriended his fellow student Nikolai Myaskovsky, who would also go on to become a great composer.

    Prokofiev developed a controversial reputation due to his unusual attitudes and disdain for musical conventions. His compositions were nevertheless well received. He finished his composition classes in 1909 and continued to study piano and conducting.

    First concerto and career

    In 1912, Prokofiev’s first concerto premiered in Moscow. He won a piano competition and the Anton Rubinstein Prize with this piece in 1914. Then he left the Conservatory to go to England. In England he met Sergei Diaghilev and Igor Stravinsky.

    Prokofiev returned to Russia during World War 1. He studied the organ at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. He continued composing, writing an opera and a symphony in this period. Then the Communist revolution disrupted his life and he went to the USA in May, 1918.

    Prokofiev went to San Francisco and was initially well-received in the US. He was planning a performance of his opera The Love for Three Oranges when the conductor died and the premiere was cancelled. Prokofiev was in financial difficulty and decided to go to Paris in 1920. He was well-received there, and met again with Diaghilev and Stravinsky. His opera was performed in Chicago in 1921, but poorly received.

    Prokofiev and his mother moved to Bavaria in 1921. Two years later, he married a Spanish singer named Lina Llubera. Then they moved back to Paris. Diaghilev commissioned some projects from him and he was repeatedly invited to return to Russia. In 1927, Prokofiev toured the USSR for two months.

    In the late 1920s, and early 1930s Prokofiev toured the USA and Europe with great success. He gradually started performing more and more of his premieres in Russia, and accepting more commissions from Russia rather than Paris.

    In 1936, he and his family moved back to Russia and remained in Moscow. In the Soviet Union, Prokofiev had to adapt to a more restrictive creative environment. Nevertheless, he continued to compose original pieces. He wrote music for children as well as a Communist piece, Cantata for the Twentieth Anniversary of the October Revolution.

    World War II

    During World War 2, Prokofiev was evacuated to the Caucasus along with many other composers and artists. He had an affair with the librettist Mira Mendelson and this resulted in him separating from Lina, although they did not formally divorce. Mira became his common-law wife. Lina was later arrested for espionage.

    Throughout the 1940s, Prokofiev suffered from heart attacks and then finally a concussion. His deteriorating health decreased his compositional output.

    Later years and death

    In 1948, the music of many prominent composers including Prokofiev, Myaskovsky, and Shostakovich was formally condemned by the Soviet government. Some of Prokofiev’s works were banned. He became a less prominent figure at the end of his life, and followed the same pattern as many other Soviet composers by producing more conventional and “patriotic” music. He died from a cerebral haemorrhage on March 5, 1953, the same day that Stalin died.

    Prokofiev wrote in a modern and dissonant style. His fame varied throughout his life, and grew after his death. His music is very popular today and he is widely considered one of the greatest 20th century composers.

    References

    http://www.pianoparadise.com/prokofiev.html

    https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/sergei-prokofiev-351.php

    https://www.8notes.com/biographies/prokofiev.asp

    https://www.allmusic.com/artist/sergey-prokofiev-mn0000596899/biography

    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sergey-Prokofiev

    https://everipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Prokofiev/

    Article was written by me for Lunyr

     
  • Earthling 3:02 am on September 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: estonian native people, Estonian seto people, estonians, ethnocultural festival, fire of friendship, funno-ugric people, indigenous estonians, king of the setos, minorities in russia, monarchism in russia, monarchy in russia, Pskov, Seto, seto king, Seto museum, Seto people, Sigovo   

    King of the Seto elected at the Setoma festival in Pskov region, Russia 

    The ethnocultural festival of Seto people, “Setoma Family Meetings”, was held on August 28, 2018 in the Museum of the Setos in the Pskov village of Sigovo. It gathered about 300 Seto people.

    Before the official festival, guests planted trees in the garden of the museum. At the festival were creative teams performing, interactive activities and a crafts fair. Guests took part in the festivities, lit the Fire of Friendship, and chose a new king who will symbolically rule the Seto next year.

    The international ethnocultural festival “Setoma Family Meetings” has been held in the Museum estate “Izborsk” every year since 2008. This is the only museum in Russia for this small Finno-Ugric people.

    According to the 2010 census, the Pskov region is home to 123 people who consider themselves as Seto. Most of the Seto people live in Estonia.

    Translated from http://www.gumilev-center.ru/korolya-seto-vybrali-na-festivale-setomaa-v-pskovskojj-oblasti/

     
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