Updates from May, 2018 Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • Earthling 1:16 am on May 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Born in Siberia, Ethnic business, Ethnically based business in Russia, Ethno-business, Ethnobusiness in russia, Khakassia   

    Russia: How ethno-businesses develop in Khakassia and elsewhere 

    kak-1-710x434

    In Khakassia and some other regions of Russia there are people who know how to monetize knowledge about their people’s culture, reports 19rus.info.

    Ethno-business promotes native cultures, which are so precious in modern times. What’s more, it brings considerable income for owners of small and medium-sized businesses. This topic was raised yesterday in the program “Business Morning” on NTV. It highlighted several ethnic business projects.

    For example, Alexander Taskinen created Altai Tea in Moscow. Here you can buy fresh spruce, cherry pancakes, honey, and tea from the Altai Mountains. First, the enterprising citizen bought goods from suppliers, and then he created his own supply.

    Peter Kurpita founded the Center for Slavic Tradition. For over 17 years he has traveled the country, participating in fairs and giving memorable shows. In addition, he started producing traditional Russian drinks-kvass, sbitnya, etc.

    Also mentioned was a business created on the basis of the culture and traditions of Khakassia. Timir and Mary Burchikova established family business, the idea of which arose three years ago with a mysterious image of a shaman. The drawing was digitized and transferred to clothes. And then, magic. The idea grew into a business and a brand, “Born in Siberia”. Now products from Khakassia — T-shirts, hoodies, leather accessories, etc. — are shipped to different parts of the world as far as Australia and America.

    “Initially, this project was not conceived as a business. It was a creative process within the family, a search for design solutions at first for ourselves, and then everything went beyond our home and grew into a company. It is unthinkable to create a business on the basis of ethnicity with a soulless commercial approach. Culture requires a careful attitude, careful interpretation, and service. We strive to create a modern interpretation of ethnic symbols and images, without distorting or simulating the native culture of the republic. This is the basic principle for us. And the buyer feels all this, probably, so our business receives quite an enthusiastic positive response, both within Khakassia, and far beyond its limits.

    We live in a very interesting time where business is being completely rethought, and the process of globalization and the interpenetration of cultures is being accelerated. We, in this regard, have the opportunity to move away from some of the usual business models — for example, not having our own production, but organizing this process from here and to there, controlling it at all stages and ensuring the quality of the final product.

    Our monthly turnover is not half a million rubles. Although it is our goal for the near future, subject to the expansion of sales”, — said Timir Borchikov.

    Translated from gumilev-center.ru (http://www.gumilev-center.ru/kak-razivaetsya-ehtnobiznes-na-primere-iz-khakasii-i-ne-tolko/)

     
  • Earthling 11:45 pm on May 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Big Brother draft law, Big Brother Moldova, Crime in Moldova, Crybercrime in Moldova, Moldova, Moldovan law, privacy in moldova, Prosecutor General of Moldova, , Surveillance law in Moldova, wiretapping in moldova   

    Moldova: Prosecutor General explains the Big Brother bill 

    Discussion of the Big Brother bill continues in Moldova (written Jan 22, 2018. The bill provides law enforcement authorities with new powers in order to ensure information security and counter cybercrime. The Prosecutor General of the Republic of Moldova, Eduard Harunzhen, gave an exclusive interview to Digital.Report, in which he spoke about the stance of the bill’s authors and the relevance of the bill, as well as whether citizens should be afraid of unreasonable electronic surveillance and eavesdropping.

    – How did the Big Brother bill appear in Moldova and what is its purpose? Does it, in your opinion, contain enough guarantees that the rights of citizens will be respected when implemented in practice?

    In Moldova, as in other countries, information technologies are actively being introduced into economic, social and other spheres of activity. And this process is accompanied by the development of a crime phenomenon, the spread of crime into cyberspace. In recent years, electronic information and computer networks have become much more frequently used for criminal purposes. Materials that could serve as evidence of this activity are stored and transmitted by criminals through these same networks.

    In this regard, efforts to prevent and combat crime in cyberspace have become a priority in the process enforcing the rule of law. We can not ignore the current threats to information security or neglect the continuous process of developing and improving technology, not to mention the fact that the country is on the way to European integration and the development of standards for the rule of law.

    In February 2009, the Moldovan Parliament approved a law that ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, adopted in Budapest on November 23, 2001. Thus, the country accepted the obligation to comply with international standards and recommendations in this area, as well as to improve national legislation. In this context, the Prosecutor General’s Office, together with the Ministry of the Interior, drafted Act No. 161, later called Big Brother. Its main purpose is to bring the Moldovan laws in line with the standards established by the Convention on Cybercrime.

    This bill provides for electronic searches, interception of information data, and other similar measures that are applied in European countries and elsewhere. These measures are not considered as entailing any risk of violating privacy rights. Such interventions are permissible only if necessary, in circumstances strictly defined by the threats, for cases of the most serious crimes. Such actions are accompanied by guarantees of fundamental human rights and freedoms. These mechanisms are included in Big Brother.

    The draft law was sent for examination to the Venice Commission and the Directorate General for Human Rights and the Rule of Law of the Council of Europe. In December 2016, they announced their findings. They noted that the provisions of the draft are appropriately tied to the provisions of other legislative procedures under consideration. In addition, the proposed amendments will improve Moldovan legislation and further promote the application of European standards.”

    To what extent is this legislative initiative relevant for Moldova, and will it allow law enforcement bodies and state security to more effectively counter cybercrimes?

    The proposed legislative changes are not only timely, but also necessary, and without delay. The development of information technology makes its adjustments to the activities and tasks of law enforcement agencies. Modern technologies bring us, benefits, and in parallel with this they create the possibility for the emergence and spread of cybercrimes.

    The bill is designed to ensure effective investigation and disclosure of the most serious forms of crimes, including elements of organized transnational crime. Law enforcement authorities need to have the capacity to collect evidence in the information space, the capacity for seizure and storage. In addition, the modernization of the state through the development of the capabilities of authorized bodies to ensure information security is an integral part of the efforts for European integration. This law brings national laws in line with European standards, and also forms a general framework for international legal cooperation between states in the investigation of cybercrime.”

    Are there nevertheless, in your opinion, any risks of violation of the rights of internet users? Is it possible to adopt the bill in its current form or does it need some improvements?

    I would like to note that the initial draft has been finalized. Certain amendments were made to it, which led to the improvement of its provisions. The Venice Commission of the Council of Europe concluded that, essentially, these changes reflect the efforts of the Moldovan authorities to improve the provisions of the law so that its norms will become more precise and clear.

    The need to promote the Big Brother draft law is obvious and, in my opinion, cannot be challenged. This was also mentioned at an international conference organized at the initiative of the Venice Commission last autumn in Chisinau.

    It is very important for this project to guarantee the respect of citizens’ freedoms rights. And here I am referring not only to people suspected of or charged with committing criminal acts, for whom the provisions of this law may be applied. I also mean those who are victims of crimes done using IT technologies; they are often children. For some reason, in public discussions about the rights and freedoms of citizens, children are often forgotten, but their rights are also guaranteed by the Constitution and are protected by the state. In its ideal form, the bill must ensure the balance of these categories of values.”

    How do you feel about the position of a number of national experts and non-governmental organizations, which argue that the adoption of the bill in its present form will lead to abuse and violations of rights? Dissatisfaction was also expressed by representatives of business in the field of telecommunications, which will have to incur considerable costs and carry out additional measures for the technical support of the new requirements.

    Indeed, this draft law faces constant resistance. I will be honest and call things by their proper names. Resistance is felt, above all, by companies providing services in the electronic communications market, which were constantly invited to public consultations. I think this reaction is natural. After all, we are talking about a business that gains considerable material profits, and any restriction can affect these interests. This we can all understand.

    The position expressed by some representatives of civil society, both in the media, and within the framework of interdepartmental meetings, to which they were invited for discussions, is less clear. Undoubtedly, in the process of developing, adopting and implementing laws, the involvement of civil society is democratic and correct. Their positions and voices are heard, but, unfortunately, not all proposals can be taken into consideration and implemented in practice.”

    According to the study of the Legal Resources Center, in Moldova, telephone conversations are listened to 38 times more often than in the UK. At the same time, it is concluded that the adoption of the law Big Brother will allow this to be done even more, increasing the risk of abuse and violation. What is your position on this matter? Is it warranted for the citizens of Moldova to fear unreasonable electronic surveillance and wiretapping?

    You refer to a study conducted and published by a representative of one of the non-governmental organizations on the situation with telephone tapping. The author of the study, in particular, compared the situation in Moldova with the situation in the UK. The situation in our republic is regarded as “particularly disturbing”. It is alleged that the proposed bill will worsen it even more.

    First of all, I must say that these declarations have nothing to do with the bill under discussion. In the Republic of Moldova, as in all countries, the mechanism for listening to telephone conversations has long been one of the procedural measures regulated by law. Its purpose is to uncover crimes and bring criminals to responsibility. These actions are impossible without justified reasoning and can be carried out only in cases strictly prescribed by law.

    The listening mechanism is a complex and technologically labor-intensive process that requires a lot of time, resources and personnel.

    Thus, the law clearly prescribes that such actions are committed only when investigating grave, especially grave and extremely serious crimes. It would be more correct and professional if the author of the study studied the statistics of these categories of crimes committed in the territory of Moldova. The number of such crimes registered in the country is significant, and this occurs regardless of the will of law enforcement agencies. And they are obliged to use any lawful methods to uncover socially dangerous acts and protect citizens from crime.

    Moreover, the listening mechanism is a complex and technologically labor-intensive process that requires a lot of time, resources and personnel. I want to assure you that no one in Moldova is listened in on just to listen. Society expects us to uncover crimes and bring those responsible to justice, and as long as this measure is applied in law enforcement and gives results, it will be used.

    In addition, it seems to me somewhat inappropriate to compare the situation in Moldova with the situation in the UK — a country with a high level of security, including constant video monitoring. It is known that a resident of London gets into the lens of video cameras on average up to 300 times a day. Often cameras capture some quite intimate scenes from people’s lives, but this fact does not seem to bother the population. Public opinion polls in London show that citizens are able to tolerate it: in their opinion, this is better than being in the epicenter of tragic events.

    In conclusion, I would like to note that each state, in ensuring national security, must independently assess the risks to which it is exposed, and create its own mechanisms to confront these risks.”

    Translated from Digital Report (https://digital.report/generalnyiy-prokuror-moldovyi-segodnya-usiliya-po-borbe-s-kiberprestupnostyu-stali-prioritetom/)

     
  • Earthling 10:42 pm on May 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: aerosols, albedo, alkalinity, atmosphere, climate science, cloud formation, clouds and the sulfur cycle, DMSP, DMSP and global warming, earth's albedo, marine phytoplankton, ocean acidifaction and global warming, ocean acidification, pH, , scientific papers, sulfur cycle, water   

    Ocean Acidification’s Potential Impact on Global Warming through Dimethyl Sulfide Reduction 

    By Zade Goertzel. Copyright 2018 Zade Goertzel. All rights reserved.

    The ocean covers over half of the earth’s surface and contributes to many earth systems that help sustain life. Due to its expansive nature, a particularly high percentage of the earth’s clouds cover the ocean. Although the feedback systems involving clouds and the reflectivity of the earth are only vaguely understood, it is understood that overall, global cloud coverage collectively works to increase the earth’s albedo. Other than water vapor, clouds are made up of aerosols. The largest contributing aerosol to marine clouds is DMS, a compound whose production relies on phytoplankton which produce DMSP. As humans pollute the atmosphere with carbon, a high percentage of this carbon is absorbed by the ocean. The more carbon dioxide that the ocean absorbs, the lower the ocean’s pH becomes. This decrease in alkalinity has the potential to negatively affect marine phytoplankton communities, hence, potentially reducing the amount of DMS produced. If this happened, it could reduce cloud coverage over the ocean and potentially speed up global warming by lowering the earth’s albedo. This means that ocean acidification caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions could potentially trigger a positive feedback loop that speeds up the impacts of global warming.

    Ocean Acidification

    The world’s oceans, which cover approximately 71% of the earth’s surface [1] store approximately 50 times more carbon dioxide than the atmosphere [20], and have absorbed nearly a third of anthropogenic carbon emissions. [2] This drastically decreases the speed of atmospheric global warming, but could have negative consequences for the ocean. In particular, acidified oceans may dissolve aragonite and calcium carbonate. The “concentration of carbonate drops by about a factor of 3 for a pH drop of 0.5 and by a factor of 10 for a full pH unit drop. Consequently, aragonite first becomes soluble in seawater when the pH drops below about 7.7.” [21] According to some studies, this will be drastic enough to completely dissolve organism’s shells “under the ocean conditions predicted for 2100” (Sponberg). [2] These predictions suggest a more drastic change in ocean acidification than has ever taken place in history. [2] These predictions do not take into account the possibility of shelled organisms evolving quickly enough to adapt to higher pH environments, but the predicted ocean acidification is expected to be many times faster than has ever happened before in the geological past. [4]

    Carbon dioxide is cycled in and out of the ocean both through both biological and physiological processes. The physiological ones consist of water currents that cycle dense, cold water from the surface down to the deep sea, and then, in other locations , coldwater from the deep sea is cycled to the surface. [22] The biological process largely takes place via phytoplankton. Carbon dioxide dissolves into the seawater and is either used for physiological processes such as photosynthesis , or remains as different forms of dissolved carbon dispersed in the water. [4] It is this excess carbon that is not absorbed for physiological processes that leads to ocean acidification as its chemical properties are altered. [4]  The CO2 reacts with H2O to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) most of which then dissociates (separates) into hydrogen (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions. [4] Since pH is a logarithmic function of hydrogen (pH = -log [H+]), this increase of hydrogen lowers the pH of the ocean.

    As the acidification of seawater will affect all marine life in some way, it will also affect the very phytoplankton that help to absorb CO2 and circulate it through the carbon cycle (instead of letting it contribute to ocean acidification). However, there are many different types of phytoplankton, and different types will be affected differently. Predicting how phytoplankton around the globe will react to these habitat changes is difficult and uncertain. Different breeds of phytoplankton react differently to lower pH habitats, which may greatly alter future phytoplankton communities. [4] Consequently, other cycles and ecosystems will be affected by such an alteration in phytoplankton communities. One of the cycles that will be affected is the sulfur cycle, which, in turn, may also have significant impacts on the earth’s albedo.

    Clouds and the sulfur cycle

    In order for clouds to form, the two necessary components are aerosols and water vapor. [25] Aerosols are liquids or solids dispersed in gas, similar to the way that water vapor is dispersed in the air. They disperse in gas so that their solid or liquid molecules have gas molecules in between them but they still remain an even distance from each other. [26] Common forms of aerosols in clouds come from anthropogenic pollution, volcanoes, forest fires [25] and, in the case of marine clouds, phytoplankton. Cloud droplets form when water vapor condenses onto aerosols. Air needs to rise up in order to cool enough for moisture to condense around the aerosol that becomes the droplet’s nuclei. [25] This happens to air via “convection, convergence, lifting along fronts, and lifting caused by topography.” [25] In general, this means that the air heats, converges with other air, or converges with another mass, such as a mountain. Once the air rises high enough up it cools which causes its moisture to condense, and this is when it becomes a visible cloud. [25]

     The relationship between clouds, the climate, and radiation is not yet thoroughly understood, but it is clear that clouds both contribute to warming and cooling the planet. [28] Collectively, all of the earth’s clouds contribute to cooling the planet, by reflecting the sun’s energy from the earth. But they also contribute to keeping the earth warm by preventing radiation from leaving the atmosphere, hence, the greenhouse gas effect. [30] Without clouds, the earth would absorb approximately 20% more radiation from the sun. [29] Different types of clouds contribute to global reflectivity differently; however, determining which types of clouds tend to have what length lifespans, and what radiation reflection tendencies is difficult. Clouds tend to cover over 60% of the planet, and the majority of this coverage is marine clouds. [27] Oceans have more cloud coverage than continents, and their clouds tend to be denser [27] and lower down in the atmosphere than continental clouds, which is a potential implication that they could be particularly effective at reflecting the sun’s radiation. [29] But some suggest that marine clouds, on an individual basis, reflect less radiation than continental clouds. [27]

    Dimethyl sulfide is the most abundant volatile organic sulfur compound in the ocean. [5] Being a volatile organic compound means that it is a carbon compound that “participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions” [23], but not “carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates” [23] or ammonium carbonate. It is the main source of “reduced tropospheric sulfur over the oceans,” [5] hence, it is the main contributing aerosol to marine clouds. Phytoplankton excrete DMSP, both while alive and while decomposing; DMSP is in their cell membrane and it is released by zooplankton consuming them, viral attacks, and during its decay. [18] This DMSP is later either eaten or converted to DMS by bacteria, hence phytoplankton provide a crucial link between the oceanic and atmospheric sulfur cycles by producing DMSP. [32]

    When DMS is oxidized at the surface of the water it becomes sulfur dioxide (SO2), which becomes sulfate (SO42-) when it reacts with hydroxide (OH). [6] The effect on the earth’s albedo comes in when sulfate nucleates into sulfate aerosol by combining with water vapor. [25][6] It can then directly scatter radiation while suspended in the atmosphere, or, because sulfate is hygroscopic (meaning that it readily absorbs water) it can act as cloud condensation nuclei and become the nucleus of cloud droplets. [25][6] By contributing extra cloud condensation nuclei, it can form the type of cloud with smaller, but more abundant, droplets. There is some evidence showing these types of clouds have higher albedo than those with less, larger droplets. [28] However, other evidence suggests that the type of clouds with a higher concentration of small droplets may have a reduced lifespan when compared with other clouds. [33] By producing what contributes to sulfate aerosol, DMSP produced by phytoplankton contributes to a large percentage of the earth’s clouds, which could potentially increase the earth’s albedo.

    It is important to note that a large percentage of DMSP is consumed by bacteria instead of contributing to this cycle. The DMS that is oxidized and ventilated into the atmosphere is only 3% of the total DMS that is produced from DMSP. [24][6] It is also difficult to measure concentrations of DMS in the surface of the water. [6] However, it is clear that the DMS produced by phytoplankton most likely provides a significant contribution to the formation of marine clouds. Of course, the DMSP contribution to this cycle depends on the type of phytoplankton involved, as different types of phytoplankton produce varying amounts of DMSP. The phytoplankton that produce the most DMSP are “Dinophyceae (dinoflagellates) and Prymnesiophyceae (which includes coccolithophores).”[5]

     

    Potential Impacts of Ocean Acidification on DMSP and Global Warming

    The first study to thoroughly address the concept that DMS production could contribute to the earth’s climate and albedo was “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate” [32] done by Robert Charlson, James Lovelock, Meinrat Andreae, and Stephan Warren in 1987. The results of this study are now commonly referred to as the “CLAW hypothesis,” after all of the researchers’ last names.

    There have been multiple studies (see references 7, 31, 32, 9, 10, 11, 12) which suggest that a decreased oceanic pH results in decreased DMSP production. According to the CLAW hypothesis, this could lead to less DMS in the troposphere to contribute to cloud creation, and therefore a lower albedo for the earth. The study, “Global warming amplified by reduced sulphur fluxes as a result of ocean acidification”[7] used computer models, previously completed studies relating to pH and DMS emissions, and predictions for future climate change to determine possible relationships between ocean acidification and global warming. This study specifically measured DMS production, and incoming radiation from the sun, in relation to predicted climate and ocean pH changes throughout the 21st century. Their main goal was “to investigate the climate impact of a decrease in global marine DMS emissions that might result from the exposure of marine biota to significant pH changes induced by ocean acidification.”[7] To do this, they conducted tests using several models to imitate and predict oceanic and atmospheric systems.

    They used models that emulate general circulation systems between the atmosphere and ocean, such as the carbon and sulfur cycle.[15][16] Because these models do not factor in DMS’s potential climate impacts, they also used a model that includes more aerosol chemistry and microphysics.[13][14] They used these models along with predictions for anthropogenic warming to predict climate change from 1860 to 2100,[17] with multiple tests with pH sensitive DMS production and a reference test with DMS production having no reaction to pH change.[7] Rather than changing the pH in the models, pH-sensitive DMS production implies that they directly altered the DMS production’s sensitivity to water pH instead. The reference, high, and medium pH-sensitive tests’ DMS production must therefore be based off of different average sensitivities that were found in previous mesocosm studies. In these models, ocean acidification was solely based off of climate warming and atmospheric composition, not marine biota changes that may increase the speed or intensity ocean acidification.[7] The gases used in the atmosphere’s composition were CO2  and the aerosols “sulphate, sea salt, black carbon, organic carbon and mineral dust.”[7] Supplementary tests were done to see the results of adding the predicted levels of anthropogenic aerosol emissions to the model test. The resulting aerosol increases did not reduce radiation in the same way that DMS did, and in fact, the projected incoming radiation was stronger than the other tests with the largest reduction in DMS emissions.[7][18] This result counters the common belief that anthropogenic aerosols might increase net cloud albedo.

    The model that focused on the sulphur cycle did not take DMSP or DMSO into account when considering the chemistry and microphysics of the sulfur cycle, instead, it simplified the process down to phytoplankton and DMS production.[7] They only focused on DMS production, bacterial consumption and hence conversion of DMSP to DMS, photolysis (the chemical compound being broken down by radiation) and the gas exchange with the atmosphere that contributes to the atmospheric sulfur cycle and cloud creation.[18] This means that they simplified the process of DMS production by estimating how much DMS is emitted into the atmosphere based off of amount of silicifying and calcifying phytoplankton detritus found in the water. [18][7]

    Silicifying and calcifying phytoplankton are the highest producers of DMSP, [7] which is why the study found focusing on these types of phytoplankton to be sufficient. It is worthy to note that this study disregarded Phaeocysitis which are avid DMSP producers. [19] This is because the conductors of this study found the informations on Phaeocystis’s relationship to seawater pH reduction and impact on overall DMS emissions to be too weak to provide accurate results. [7] As for the model’s aerosol circulation calculations, it uses the “aerosol processes: nucleation, condensation and coagulation” [7] to test the impact of DMS on both its direct reflectivity impact and its impact on cloud composition.

    In order to complete a thorough analysis of what actually alters overall DMS production, they analyzed and compared multiple mesocosm studies. A mesocosm is an enclosed system that simulates a natural system in order to examine that system in controlled conditions. It is necessary to note that many difficulties in comparing different mesocosm experiments arose from differing “volumes of seawater enclosed; method used to alter acidity of the sea water; and the stability of the pH values over time.” [7] One of the main mesocosm studies focused on is one 5-week study done in Slavbard, in 2010, by the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). [45] They found that nanoplankton and picoplankton lived well, but that regular phytoplankton suffered. The experiment was too short to have any major implications, but it showed a potential decrease in ocean CO2 absorption, the possibility of decreased zooplankton populations, and decreased DMS emissions. [45]

    The models show that phytoplankton growth increases in high latitude areas as a reaction to ice-melt. Nevertheless, global radiation still increased all of the tests, because, even though the ice melted the waters would still be cold, and therefore absorb even more CO2 than other waters. [7] Climate warming also increased stratification of ocean water columns, meaning that water columns with different properties became more separated from each other. This reduced the supply of silicate in the surface layers of the ocean. Since phytoplankton need to be near enough to the water surface to absorb the sun’s radiation, this could cause the plankton community to shift mainly towards calcifying types that produce even more DMS than silicifying phytoplankton. [7] However, this still lead to a decrease in overall DMS emissions.

    The tests with pH-sensitive DMS production had a significantly lower DMS production by 2100 than the reference test did. [7] Both the reference and other tests were found to have similar overall results, but the pH sensitive tests result in drastic DMS decrease despite an occasional increase in biological production. [7] This counters some evidence that eutrophication, that can occur with ocean acidification, could counteract the negative impacts of acidification on DMS production. [34] The final results also show that where DMS production decreased, incoming radiation increased, particularly in parts of the world that were measured to have the lowest DMS emissions. [7] Overall, this study’s results show that DMS emission reduction could be caused by ocean acidification, and this could add a 10% increase to the global warming that was predicted to result from doubled CO2 emissions when this study was written, in August 2013.7

    If the tests on these mesocosms accurately demonstrate the reactions of phytoplankton to change in their habitat’s pH, then ocean acidification could alter the earth’s radiation budget in such a way that it ruins the balance; thus increasing global warming. It would quickly increase the effects of anthropogenic warming. [7]

    A pH decrease of approximately 0.5 units by the end of the 21st century is predicted. This could greatly alter phytoplankton communities and hence DMS emissions. One result from one of the studies referenced by “Global warming amplified by reduced sulphur fluxes as a result of ocean acidification” demonstrated an increase in DMS caused by a lowered pH, but more studies find a decrease in DMS. The results of any of these studies is questionable, as the “understanding of the processes behind the response of DMS to ocean acidification is hitherto very poor.” [7] Nevertheless, such experiments could prove accurate and useful projections of the future.

    Other factors that result from ocean acidification could also lead to a reduction in DMS production, as ocean acidification could change many factors of all marine life. If acidification stops the ocean from absorbing CO2 at the rate it has been doing so up to this point in time, then the speed of warming could be increased to the extent that it is detrimental to many of earth’s life forms. But, aside from all of these results of anthropogenic CO2 emissions there is also the possibility that ocean acidification might decrease the earth’s albedo through disturbing phytoplankton communities.

    The possibility of this being the case is still very theoretical, as discussion of clouds impacts on albedo and climate are widely debated. As previously mentioned, some suggest that eutrophication caused by increased CO2 increases DMS emissions enough to counteract the effects of decreased ocean alkalinity. [34] Two reports, one from NASA in 2005, [25] state that clouds at a lower altitudes tend to contribute to reflecting the sun’s radiation, while clouds at higher altitudes mainly retain the earth’s heat. [29] But a 2011 report from NASA states that “The tops of ocean clouds are generally about a kilometer lower than the tops of clouds over land, and ocean clouds reflect about 10 percent less sunlight,” [27] which would mean that ocean clouds reflect less light despite the otherwise suggested evidence that denser and lower altitude clouds reflect more sunlight. There is also dispute over whether aerosols, including those from anthropogenic warming, increase overall cloud reflectivity or not. NASA suggests that all reflective aerosols increase cloud reflectivity and longevity [28], while a study from the Max-Planck Institute suggests that they increase reflectivity but drastically decrease the lifespan of the clouds. [33]

     

    References

    1.) Oceanic Institute. “Aqua Facts.” Hawai’i Pacific University, n.d. http://www.oceanicinstitute.org/aboutoceans/aquafacts.html.

    2.) SPONBERG, ADRIENNE FROELICH. “Ocean Acidification: The Biggest Threat to Our Oceans?” BioScience 57, no. 10 (2007): 822–822. doi:10.1641/b571004.

    3.) Sudeshna Chowdhury. “How Do Oceans Absorb Carbon Dioxide? Scientists Find Clues.;  Using Satellite Images, Researchers Have Identified the Role of Plankton in the Global Carbon Cycle.” The Christian Science Monitor, March 12, 2014, sec. Science. http://www.lexisnexis.com/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=5BR7-86R1-DYRK-B0M7&csi=7945&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true.

    4.) “What Is Ocean Acidification?” European Project on OCean Acidification, n.d. http://www.epoca-project.eu/index.php/what-is-ocean-acidification.html.

    5.) Sophie Clayton. “Phytoplankton, Climate and the Sulfur Cycle: Exploring the CLAW Hypothesis.” Biogeochemistry of Sulfur. MIT, n.d.

    6.) Silvia Kloster. “DMS Cycle in the Ocean-Atmosphere System and Its Response to Anthropogenic Perturbations.” Earth System Science. Hamburg: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2006.

    7.) Six, Katharina D., Silvia Kloster, Tatiana Ilyina, Stephen D. Archer, Kai Zhang, and Ernst Maier-Reimer. “Global Warming Amplified by Reduced Sulphur Fluxes as a Result of Ocean Acidification.” Nature Climate Change 3, no. 11 (August 25, 2013): 975–78. doi:10.1038/nclimate1981.

    8.) Dr EM Foekema PhD. “Researchers Are Welcome to Test New Techniques in the Marine Mesocosm Facility.” Wageningen UR, November 14, 2013. https://www.wageningenur.nl/en/show/Researchers-are-welcome-to-test-new-techniques-in-the-marine-mesocosm-facility.htm.

    9.) U. Riebesell, R. G. J. Bellerby, H.-P. Grossart, and F. Thingstad. “Mesocosm CO2 Perturbation Studies: From Organism to Community Level.” Copernicus Publications, Biogeosciences Discuss, August 21, 2008. http://www.biogeosciences.net/5/1157/2008/bg-5-1157-2008.pdf.

    10.) Hayley E. Arnold, Philip Kerrison, and Michael Steinke. “Interacting Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming Ongrowth and DMS-Production in the Haptophyte Coccolithophore Emiliania Huxleyi.” School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, no. Global Change Biology (2013). http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1111%2Fgcb.12105?r3_referer=wol&tracking_action=preview_click&show_checkout=1&purchase_referrer=onlinelibrary.wiley.com&purchase_site_license=LICENSE_DENIED.

    11.) Robert Charlson, James Lovelock, Meinrat Andreae, and Stephan Warren. “Oceanic Phytoplankton, Atmospheric Sulphur, Cloud Albedo and Climate.” Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Nature, 326 (April 16, 1987). http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~sgw/PAPERS/1987_CLAW.pdf.

    12.) Stephanie Dutkiewicz, J. Jeffrey Morris, Michael J. Follows, Jeffery Scott, Orly Levitan, Sonya T. Dyhrman, and Ilana Berman-Frank. “Impact of Ocean Acidification on the Structure of Future Phytoplankton Communities.” Macmillan Publishers Limited, Nature Climate Change, July 20, 2015.

    13.) Stier, P. et al. The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125–1156 (2005).

    14.)  Zhang, K. et al. The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM, version 2: Sensitivity to improvements in process representations. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 8911–8949 (2012)

    15.) Jungclaus, J. H. et al. Climate and carbon-cycle variability over the last millennium. Clim. Past 6, 723–727 (2010).

    16.) Maier-Reimer, E. et al. The HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle Model

    HAMOCC5.1—Technical Description (Berichte zur Erdsystemforschung,

    Vol. 14, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, 2005); available at

    http://www.mpimet.mpg.de.

    17.) Meehl, G. & Stocker, T. F. in IPCC Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (eds Solomon, S. et al.) 1–18 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).

    18.) Reference 7’s Supplmentary Material: Six, Katharina D., Silvia Kloster, Tatiana Ilyina, Stephen D. Archer, Kai Zhang, and Ernst Maier-Reimer. “Global Warming Amplified by Reduced Sulphur Fluxes as a Result of Ocean Acidification.” Nature Climate Change 3, no. 11 (August 25, 2013): 975–78. doi:10.1038/nclimate1981.http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v3/n11/extref/nclimate1981-s1.pdf

    19.) Stefels, J., Steinke, M., Turner, S., Malin, G. & Belviso, S. Envi- ronmental constraints on the production and removal of the climati- cally active gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) and implications for ecosys- tem modelling. Biogeochemistry 83, doi:10.1007/s10533-007-9091-5 (2007).

    20.) “The Carbon Cycle, the Ocean, and the Iron Hypothesis.” Texas A&M University, DEpartment of Oceanography, May 18, 2009. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/carboncycle.htm.

    21.) Randy Holmes-Farley. “Chemistry and the Aquarium: Calcium.” Advanced Aquarist 1 (March 2002). http://www.advancedaquarist.com/2002/3/chemistry.

    22.) “Oceans and the Carbon Cycle.” EarthLabs, Carleton College, February 2016. http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/carbon/6a.html.

    23.) “‘Volatile Organic Compounds’ Definition,” October 2014.

    24.) Nathalie Gypens, Alberto V. Borges, Gaelle Speeckaert, and Christiane Lancelot. “The Dimethylsulfide Cycle in the Eutrophied Southern North Sea: A Model Study Integrating Phytoplankton and Bacterial Processes.” US National Library of Medicine, January 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895025/.

    25.) NASA. “The Importance of Understanding Clouds.” NASA Facts, 2005. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/135641main_clouds_trifold21.pdf.

    26.) NASA. “The Importance of Understanding Clouds.” NASA Facts, 2005. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/135641main_clouds_trifold21.pdf.

    27.) Gavin A. Schmidt. “Cloud Climatology: Global Distribution and Character of Clouds.” NASA: Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2011. http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/briefs/rossow_01/distrib.html.

    28.) “Aerosols and Clouds (Indirect Effects).” The Earth Observatory. NASA, n.d. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Aerosols/page4.php.

    29.) B. Geerts. “Do Clouds Warm or Cool the Climate?” University of Wyoming, April 2002. http://www-das.uwyo.edu/~geerts/cwx/notes/chap09/rossow.html.

    30.) “The Greenhouse Effect.” Exploration, http://web.archive.org/web/20000901022925/http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/greenhouse.html. January 1996.

    31.) Archer, S. D. et al. Contrasting responses of DMS and DMSP to ocean acidification in Arctic waters. Biogeosciences 10, 1893–1908 (2013).

    32.) Robert Charlson, James Lovelock, Meinrat Andreae, and Stephan Warren. “Oceanic Phytoplankton, Atmospheric Sulphur, Cloud Albedo and Climate.” Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Nature, 326 (April 16, 1987). http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~sgw/PAPERS/1987_CLAW.pdf.

    33.) Kirk, Annette. “Aerosol Particles Make Clouds Brighter, but Short-Lived.” Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, n.d. http://www.mpimet.mpg.de/kommunikation/aktuelles/single-news/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=873&cHash=2d022ad85ab4b86ee599842bb7dd9126.

    34.) Gypens N and Borges AV (2014) Increase in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions due to eutrophication of coastal waters offsets their reduction due to ocean acidification. Front. Mar. Sci. 1:4. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2014.00004

    35.) CAICEadmin. “Learning with CLEAR: Aerosol Impacts on Climate – Cloud Nucleation.” Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://caice.ucsd.edu/index.php/education/clear/learning-with-clear/cloud-nucleation/.

    36.) CAICEadmin. “Welcome.” Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://caice.ucsd.edu/index.php/welcome/.

    37.) “Albedo.” Geography 101 Online: The Natural Environment, n.d. https://laulima.hawaii.edu/access/content/group/2c084cc1-8f08-442b-80e8-ed89faa22c33/book/chapter_3/albedo.htm.

    38.) Brigham Young University. Methods of Cloud Formation, n.d. http://www.physics.byu.edu/faculty/christensen/physics%20137/Images/Atmospheric%20Stability%20and%20Cloud%20Development/Methods%20of%20Cloud%20formation.htm.

    39.) Naomi M. Levine. “Marine Sulphur Cycle.” Woods Holw Oceanographic Institution, n.d. http://www.whoi.edu/hpb/viewImage.do?id=37464&ppid=8888&sid=3592&isProj=1.

    40.) Y. Tsukii. “Dinophyceae: Dinoflagellida,” n.d. http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/pdb/images/Mastigophora/Unidentified_Dinophyceae/sp_04b.html.

    41.)“Prymnesiophyceae.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, May 20, 2015. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prymnesiophyceae&oldid=663181367.

    42.) “Diversity of Life.” Enviro Active, n.d. http://www.enviroactive.com.au/marine/diversity-of-life.

    43.) “Ocean Circulation.” 05:40:19 UTC. http://www.slideshare.net/daengaslam/ocean-circulation-15262041.

    44.) “Understanding Latitude and Longitude: The Global Grid.” Journey North, n.d. http://www.learner.org/jnorth/tm/LongitudeIntro.html.

    45.)“CO2-Hungry Microbes Might Short-Circuit the Marine Foodweb.” Geomar, December 2013. http://www.geomar.de/index.php?id=4&no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5btt_news%5d=1459&tx_ttnews%5bbackPid%5d=185&L=1.

     

    46.) “Dimethylsulfoniopropionate.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, February 16, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dimethylsulfoniopropionate&oldid=705241959.

    47.) Chemical Structure of Dimethyl Sulfide., August 25, 2007. Self-made in BKChem, scaled in perl. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dimethyl_sulfide_structure.svg.

    48.) “Sulfate.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, February 11, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sulfate&oldid=704366845.

     
  • Earthling 3:10 pm on May 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Impressionist Polish music, Karol Szymanowski, Modernist Polish music, , Polish music, Polish national music, Polish patriotic music   

    Karol Szymanowski 

    Karol Szymanowski (Born on October 3, 1882 – Died on March 29, 1937 in Lausanne, Switzerland) was a Polish composer who is widely considered one of Poland’s greatest composers. He wrote in a modern, impressionistic style, and much of his music draws on Polish folk themes.

    Biography

    Karol Szymanowski ’s was born in Timoshovka, Ukraine (the Russian Empire), in 1882. His parents were Stanislaw and Anna Szymanowski . The family was wealthy, land-owning, Catholic, and patriotic towards Poland (then a part of the Russian Empire). Stanislaw had varied intellectual interests and played the piano and cello.

    Szymanowski was the cousin of the future famous pianist and teacher Heinrich Neuhaus. He and Neuhaus were both related to Felix Blumenfeld, a future famous composer, pianist, and teacher.

    Szymanowski suffered a leg injury early in life, which led him to adopt of a sedentary lifestyle and pushed him in the direction of studying music. Around 1889, Szymanowski began receiving piano lessons from his father. He stopped attending school. Beginning in 1892, Szymanowski attended the music school of Heinrich Neuhaus’s father, Gustav Neuhaus, in Elizavetgrad.

    With inspiration and encouragement from both close and distant relatives, Szymanowski began composing at a young age. In 1901, Szymanowski went to Warsaw and studied music privately. He learned harmony from Zawirski and counterpoint and composition from Zygmunt Noskowski.

    In 1904, Szymanowski went to Berlin. The next year, he founded the Young Polish Composers’ Publishing Company, which operated until 1912. He also joined the Society for Performing Contemporary Polish Music. Szymanowski returned to Timoshovka in 1914 due to World War 1.

    During the war, he studied Islamic and ancient Greek culture. He wrote many pieces during this period in diverse styles, such as Love Songs of Hafiz and Myths. During the chaos of the Communist revolution, Szymanowski’s family lost their home and had to move to Elizavetgrad. Szymanowski put aside his musical acitivites for almost two years and wrote a novel, which was later lost in a fire.

    After Poland became independent in 1918, Szymanowski began to produce more conservative music, often with Polish folk themes. He settled in Warsaw in 1919, and also traveled extensively, including visits to Paris, London, and the US. In 1922, he began visiting Zakopane, and it became a favorite destination and a continual source of inspiration for him.

    In 1927, Szymanowski became the director of the Warsaw Conservatory. He held this post for four years. He was also invited to be the director of the Cairo Conservatory. He devoted himself to improving education in Poland, a task which absorbed his energies and decreased his creative output. In 1930, he resigned from the Warsaw Conservatory due to tuberculosis. He spent some time in a sanatorium in Davos, Switzerland. Here he wrote The Educational Role of Musical Culture in Society. He continued to compose and enjoyed great success. He spent much of his time abroad, and especially in Switzerland, where he passed away in 1937.

    Musical Style and Legacy

    Szymanowski is known as one of Poland’s greatest composers after Chopin. His music is often described as modern, lyrical, and impressionistic. Szymanowski drew inspiration from many composers throughout his life, including Chopin, Scriabin, Strauss, Debussy, Ravel, Reger, and others.

    In his early music, Szymanowski was greatly influenced by Chopin, as well as German composers such as Strauss. His music sometimes tended towards atonality. During his middle phase, following Poland’s independence in 1918, he produced more conservative music and increasingly based his music on Polish folk themes and styles. In the latter part of his life, Szymanowski returned to a style more resembling his earlier works and less heavily based on folk music.

     

    References

    http://www.karolSzymanowski.pl/life/

    http://pmc.usc.edu/composer/Szymanowski.html

    https://www.allmusic.com/artist/karol-Szymanowski-mn0001191556/biography

    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Karol-Szymanowski

    http://culture.pl/en/artist/karol-Szymanowski

    Article written by me for Lunyr

     
  • Earthling 12:58 am on May 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Endangered languages, Kamil Hazrat Samigullin, , Mufti of Tatarstan, Petition, Purpose of nations, Russian laws, Russian petition, Spiritual Board of Muslims of Tatarstan,   

    Russia: Mufti of Tatarstan opposes the bill against mandatory study of regional languages 

    The head of the Spiritual Board of Muslims of Tatarstan, Kamil Hazrat Samigullin, spoke out in support of the petition against the draft law to forbid the mandatory study of regional languages in schools of the republics, as National Accent reports. He requested support for the petition in an open letter to the public, published on the website of the Board on May 23.

    “In the Noble Qur’an it is said:” O people! Verily, We created you from a man and a woman and made you peoples and tribes so that you might know each other.”(49:13). This important verse points to the fact that the basis of relations between peoples is mutual knowledge, and also that each nation, by the will of the Most High, is endowed with its own national identity. Hence it becomes obvious: the native language is a trust, something that is given to us by Allah for careful and responsible safekeeping. In other words, if we lose a language, we are failing to fulfill the order of the Creator!”, Samigullin said.

    The petition “No law against native languages” has won more than 34,000 votes as of May 23. Its authors ask Vladimir Putin not to allow the consideration of the bill against the mandatory study of national languages.

    Translated from gumilev-center.ru

     
  • Earthling 12:14 am on May 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Fine for search engine, Fine for VPN in Russia, Fines in Russia, , Russia banned site circumvention, , , , VPN in Russia   

    Russia: A bill with fines for VPNs and search engines has been passed 

    The bill imposes a fine of up to 300,000 rubles for a hosting provider or anonymizer’s failure to submit information about users to the government, and up to 700,000 rubles for search engine providing links to prohibited sites.

    The Russian parliament returned to consideration of Bill No. 195449-7, which proposes to amend the Administrative Code on Fines for Search Engines and Circumvention Services for Failure to Comply with Federal Law 276-FZ, which prohibits services from providing Russians with the opportunity to bypass blocks, and prohibits search engines from providing links to banned resources.

    So, for hosting providers or anonymizers failing to submit data on the owners of circumvention means for accessing forbidden sites, or information about the notification of the owners of the need to provide identification, an administrative fine is established: for citizens, from 10,000 to 30,000 rubles, and for legal entities, from 50,000 to 300,000 rubles.

    For the issuance by search engines of links to prohibited sites, it is proposed to impose fines of 3,000 to 5,000 rubles for citizens, from 30,000 to 50,000 rubles for officials, and from 500,000 to 700,000 rubles for legal entities.

    The authors of the initiative were MPs Maxim Kudryavtsev (United Russia), Nikolai Ryzhak (Just Russia), and Alexander Yushchenko (Communist Party of the Russian Federation). Last Fall, the bill passed its first reading in the State Duma. Now it has just passed its second reading.

    The consideration of the bill took no more than five minutes for the deputies, and was passed without any discussions, which certainly raises questions, since two amendments were proposed to the document on the first reading, as reported by a member of the State Duma Committee for State Construction and Legislation, Z. Baiguskarov (United Russia). He also reminded the deputies that the bill is aimed at establishing responsibility for the failure to comply with the law on the regulation of search engines and VPNs. “The bill has passed legal and linguistic examinations,” the deputy noted. “The Committee recommends voting for the table of amendments and adopting the bill in the second reading.”

    The bill was passed by the State Duma in the second reading, with 340 votes in favor and one against, with no abstentions.

    Let us recall that the law on strict regulation of circumvention means came into force in November last year, but the authorities have hitherto not been in a hurry to proactively deal with search engines and VPN services, since there was still no procedure for compelling them to cooperate. According to the federal law 276-FZ, services that should block access to banned sites in Russia are determined by the FSB and other structures that conduct operational search activity (RDD).

    Translated from RosKomSvoboda: https://roskomsvoboda.org/39092/

     
  • Earthling 11:25 am on May 26, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: author of carol of the bells, carol of the bells composer, choral composer, Composer of Shchedryk, Mykola Leontovych, Origins of Christmas music, , Ukrainian nationalist composer, Ukrainian patriotic music   

    Mykola Leontovych 

    Mykola Dmytrovich Leontovych (Born on December 13, 1877 in Selevynzi, Ukraine – Died on January 25, 1921 in Markovka, Ukraine) was a Ukrainian composer who is especially known for his a capella choral works. He was and remains one of the most popular composers in Ukraine. His Christmas carol Shchedryk is globally very famous as the Carol of the Bells.

    Biography

    Mykola Leontovych was born in Selevynzi (modern-day Monastiryok), Ukraine, in 1877. He came from a priestly and musical family. Mykola’s mother, Mariya Yosypivna, was a singer. His father Dmytro Feofanovych Leontovych was a priest and a musician. His grandfather and great grandfather were also priests. Dmytro could sing and play many instruments. He also directed a school choir. Mykola’s first musical lessons came from his father. Mykola Leontovych grew up in the village of Shershni.

    In 1888, Mykola Leontovych entered the Sharhorod Spiritual Beginners School. He became very skilled at singing. In 1892, he entered to the Russian Orthodox Theological Seminary in Kamianets-Podilskyi, where he received a religious and musical education. Mykola’s father and grandfather had also gone to this school, and his younger brother Oleksander attended alongside him. Mykola learned to play numerous instruments, and developed his violin skills in particular. He also learned music theory and began writing choral pieces. He took on the role of director of the school’s choir when the previous director died. He introduced secular music to the repertoire, including his own music, Lysenko, and Profyriy Demutskiy. He graduated in 1899.

    Following his graduation, Leontovych began working as a music and math teacher at a secondary school in Chukiv. During his spare time, he transcribed and arranged folk songs. He later wrote a book about this period, called How I Organized an Orchestra in a village School.

    Leontovych’s next job was at the Theological College of Tyvriv. In 1902, he married Claudia Zhovtevych. Then he moved to Vinnytsia and taught at the Church-Educators’ College.

    From 1903 to 1904, Leontovych studied in St. Petersburg at the St. Petersburg Court Capella. He learne music theory from Semen Barmotin and choral performance from Puzarevskiy.

    In 1904, Leontovych moved to Donbass and taught music to the children of railroad workers. During the unrest of 1905, he organized a choir that performed during meetings of discontent workers. They sang arrangements of diverse ethnic folk songs.

    In 1908, Leontovych moved to Tulchyn and taught at the Tulchyn Eparchy Women’s College. He met the composer Kyrylo Stetsenko, and they became friends who mutually influence each other. From 1909 to 1914, Leontovych was intermittently taught by the music theorist Boleslav Yavorsky during visits to Kiev and Moscow.

    During the Communist Revolution in 1918, Leontovych moved to Kiev. He conducted and taught at the Kiev Conservatory, as well as the Mykola Lysenko Institute of Music and Drama. He played a key role in the establishment of the Ukrainian Republic Capella, and supported the idea of Ukrainian independence. In 1919, the White Army conquered Kiev and persecuted Ukrainian intellectuals, so Leontovych fled to Tulchyn. He started a music school.

    In 1921, Leontovych was shot to death in his parents’ home in Markovka, either by a burglar or an agent of the Soviet secret police.

    At the time of his death Leontovych had been writing an opera, On the Water Nymph’s Easter, when he was murdered. It was based on Ukrainian legends and the writings of Borys Hrinchenko. The composer Mykhailo Verykivsky later attempted to complete the opera. Another version, condensing the three acts into one operetta, was completed by Myroslav Skoryk and Diodor Bobyr.


    Musical Style and Legacy

    Leontovych was particularly inspired by Mykola Lysenko and the Ukrainian national music movement. Like Mykola, he largely based his music on folk themes.

    He wrote more than 150 choral pieces. His most famous works are Shchedryk and Dudaryk. Shchedryk has become extremely famous around the world as a Christmas carol.

    Leontovych’s music is not widely performed outside of Ukraine, with the exception of Shchedryk.

    References

    https://www.allmusic.com/artist/mykola-leontovych-mn0001632327/biography

    https://everipedia.org/wiki/Mykola_Leontovych/

    http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?linkpath=pages%5CL%5CE%5CLeontovychMykola.htm

     

    Article written by me for Lunyr

     

     
  • Earthling 12:23 am on May 26, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: AIS Search, Cyberdrain, , Kids and drugs in Russia, , Russia counter-narcotics, Russia counterterrorism, , Russian war on drugs, Teaching kids to visit terrorist sites   

    Russia: In Kogalym, schoolchildren are taught to visit terrorist and drug sites 

    deti-poisk-extremizma

    “Hello, is this the FSB? I found two terrorists, they’re yelling that they were just playing.”

    In their search for prohibited information on the Internet, the local police are assisted by the “Cyberdrain” cells, created with the cooperation of seven local schools and a polytechnic college.

    Nobody could come up with something better than the authorities of Kogalym: to attract adolescents to monitor the Internet to search for prohibited information in it. It would seem that the efforts of minors are aimed at a good cause – helping the police, but if you get into the heart of the matter, the question arises: “What were the authors of this project thinking?” Uncles and aunts happily report how they were involved with the cells of the youth social movement in Kogalym,“Cyberdrain”, formed from seven local schools and the Kogalym Polytechnic College, without even going into details.

    The Kogalym authorities also say that the Department of Information Technologies of Ugra is now introducing a specialized system into the work of Cyberdrain, AIS search, which law enforcement officers use to identify extremist sites. For example, Svetlana Mikhaleva, Head of the Department of Interdepartmental Cooperation in Ensuring Public Order and Security of the City Administration, says that “since the beginning of the year nine sites with extremist, terrorist and narcotic materials have been identified using this program.”

    Once again: the children are engaged in identifying those materials that the state seems to have banned even viewing, and for which fines are issued to schools, libraries, or cafes, if suddenly the public internet access provided by them is not properly filtered. That is, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Prosecutor General’s Office, Rospotrebnadzor and the courts, according to the federal law No. 436-FZ,“protect children from harmful information”, sometimes registering absolutely harmless sites in the register of banned sites, and authorities of Kogalym invite children to search in the network of “Bookmarks” for sermons from violent Islamists or content sowing interethnic/interracial hatred. It is unlikely that anyone will believe that minors do not read these materials, which affect the child’s developing psyche in an unpredictable manner.

    Yes, we understand that it is impossible to protect children from dangerous information on the internet, and it is hardly necessary to deal with the state — the family’s task is to keep the child from bad habits and bad acquaintances. However, the authorities of Kogalym think differently apparently, revealing before the minors a whole “garden of forbidden fruits.” Naturally, the position of the local Ministry of Internal Affairs also raises questions, since they for some reason consider this practice normal, and even make use of a service such as “Cyberdrain”.

    RosKomSvoboda requested comments from experts, and they were extremely surprised by what was happening in Kogalym.

    The former FSB officer, lawyer and human rights activist Vladislav Yusupov calls this practice an official crime. Furthermore, for operational work to discover and prevent extremism and terrorism, the data obtained by adolescents from the network are of zero value — they, rather, will even harm the “pathfinders” themselves:

    “Children cannot and do not have the right to participate in the search for extremism, because they are not experts — in cases of extremism and terrorism, the participation of the latter is always necessary. And the very fact of inviting children or adolescents to search for such information is the abuse of official authority. In such cases it is necessary to write an application to the Investigative Committee, so that they will understand this. So this cannot be left alone.”

    The PhD in Psychology and representative of the Pirate Party of Russia, Pavel Rassudov, commented on this incident in his usual ironic manner:

    “I do not understand the logic — why some social movements and law enforcement agencies consider it possible to involve children in the study of drug-related sites? In my opinion, it is a bit early to teach adolescents to bypass to access shops with drug bookmarks.

    Well, for students, especially the senior classes, it would be more effective to use them to search for pornographic sites. I hope that the participation in these cyber-searches is not attracted voluntarily-compulsorily.

    On the other hand, given that over 6 months, only 9 sites were found by the cyber-hunters, it can be assumed that only one schoolchild is involved in the squad, and that one is a slacker.”

    The system of searching for extremist and narcotic sites using cyber-assistants was tested in HMAO in 2017.“Participation in the AIS Search by the activists of the Cyberdrain social movement,” law enforcement officials assure us, “should bring results. Now, training for the use of the program will be organized for the public.”

    Translated from RosKomSvoboda: https://roskomsvoboda.org/39028/

     
  • Earthling 6:02 pm on May 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Boris Liatoshinski, Boris Lyatoshynsky, Father of Modern Ukrainian Music, Liatoshinski, Lyatoshynsky, , , Ukrainian modernist composer   

    Boris Lyatoshynsky 

    Boris Mikolayovich Lyatoshinksy (Born on January 3, 1895 in Zhytomyr, Ukraine – Died on April 15, 1968 in Kiev, Ukraine) was a Ukrainian composer, conductor, and teacher. He was a highly influential figure in Ukrainian music and won widespread appreciation in the USSR by the end of his life. He has been dubbed the “father of modern Ukrainian music”. He wrote in a modern style, experimenting with atonality in his early pieces and drawing on Slavic and Ukrainian folk themes in his later music.

    Biography

    Lyatoshinksy was born and raised in Zhytomyr. Then he went to Kiev in 1914 and enrolled in Kiev University to study law. He also studied at the Kiev Conservatory. He attended Reinhold Gliere’s composition class, and they became lifelong friends. Lyatoshinksy graduated from the law school in 1918, and from the Conservatory in 1919.

    After graduating from the Kiev Conservatory, Lyatoshinsky became a teacher there. He continued working there for the rest of his life. From 1935 to 1938 and 1941 to 1944, Lyatoshinksy taught at the Moscow Conservatory as well, without leaving his post in Kiev.

    In the early 1920s, Lyatoshinksy joined the Kiev Association for Contemporary Music. In the 1930s and 1940s he was on the board of directors of the Ukrainian Composer’s Union. In the late 1940s, he joined the board of directors of the Soviet Composer’s Union, and remained in this post for the rest of his life.

    Lyatoshynsky’s earliest music was romantic in style. He also experimented with atonality and drew inspiration in this regard from European composers as well as Alexander Scriabin. Over the 1920s and 1930s, he transitioned into a more simple and national style, inspired by Mykola Lysenko in particular.

    Lyatoshinksy’s second symphony, completed in 1936, was based on Ukrainian folk themes and written in a highly complex style, was rejected by the Soviet Composer’s Union for its lack of conformity with Soviet standards. He completed a revision in 1940, which was still considered inadequate. The symphony was not performed until 1964.

    Lyatoshinksy’s third symphony was completed in 1951. Like his second symphony, it was rejected by the Soviet Composer’s Union. He was asked to revise it and make a new fourth movement. Lyatoshinksy completed the revision in 1954, and the symphony premiered in St. Petersburg in 1955.

    Following the great success of his third symphony, Lyatoshinky was no longer given trouble from the Soviets over his music. For the next thirteen years, he composed prolifically, writing not only Ukrainian-themed music, but also music based on Polish, Bulgarian , and Russian themes.

    Lyatoshinksy was awarded two Stalin prizes: one for his Ukrainian Quintet in 1946, and the second for a film score in a movie about Taras Shevtshenko in 1952. Following his death in 1968, he was named a People’s Artist of the Ukrainian SSR.

     

    Musical Style and Legacy

    Lyatoshinksy went through several stylistic phases. His earliest music is romantic, and shows a particular influence from Schumann and Borodin. He was also influenced by Wagner and Tchaikovsky. He also took inspiration from Scriabin and other avant-garde and “atonal” composers. Over the 1920s and 1930s, his style simplified and he increasingly took inspiration from Mykola Lysenko and Ukrainian national composers. His music increasingly drew upon Ukrainian folk music, while still maintaining a distinctly modern sound. During the last period of his life, he wrote music incorporating elements from various Slavic cultures, in particular Poland, Bulgaria, Russia, and Ukraine.

    He has been dubbed “the father of modern Ukrainian music.”

    References

    https://www.allmusic.com/artist/boris-lyatoshynsky-mn0002259030/biography

    https://www.naxos.com/person/Boris_Mikolayovich_Lyatoshynsky/21096.htm

    http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Tajikistan-to-Zimbabwe/Ukrainians.html

    https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Boris_Liatoshinsky

     
  • Earthling 3:36 pm on May 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Konstantin Noskov, Ministry of Digital Development, , Russian government   

    Russia: New Head of the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media is appointed 

    The Russian president approved the composition of the new government and appointed the new Head of the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media, Konstantin Noskov.

    He previously headed the Analytical Center of the Government of the Russian Federation. At the same time, the Ministry of Communications was renamed into the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media.

    The head of the new ministry will be responsible for the development of the digital economy, communications, and transport in the new Russian government.

    Soskov graduated from the Moscow State Academy of Instrument Engineering and Informatics with a degree in Automated Systems of Information Processing and Management, and also received an master’s degree in Strategic Management from the HSE.

    He was an economic analyst for the Big Money program on NTV. The new appointee is criticized for his lack of expert connections. Noskov is allegedly practically unknown in the industry he will represent.

    Translated from Digital Report: https://digital.report/v-rossii-naznachili-glavu-ministerstva-tsifrovogo-razvitiya-i-svyazi/

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
Bitnami